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Plasma and Dietary Antioxidant Status as Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Review of Human Studies
Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 March 2013; in revised form: 30 May 2013 / Accepted: 17 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
Abstract: Extensive evidence has demonstrated that many antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols have protective effects in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), a chronic disease that is mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. This review focuses on evidence from prospective cohort studies and clinical trials in regard to the associations between plasma/dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular events. Long-term, large-scale, population-based cohort studies have found that higher levels of serum albumin, bilirubin, glutathione, vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids were associated with a lower risk of CVD. Evidence from the cohort studies in regard to dietary antioxidants also supported the protective effects of dietary vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids, and polyphenols on CVD risk. However, results from large randomized controlled trials did not support long-term use of single antioxidant supplements for CVD prevention due to their null or even adverse effects on major cardiovascular events or cancer. Diet quality indexes that consider overall diet quality rather than single nutrients have been drawing increasing attention. Cohort studies and intervention studies that focused on diet patterns such as high total antioxidant capacity have documented protective effects on CVD risk. This review provides a perspective for future studies that investigate antioxidant intake and risk of CVD.
Keywords: antioxidant status; cardiovascular disease (CVD); human studies; review
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wang, Y.; Chun, O.K.; Song, W.O. Plasma and Dietary Antioxidant Status as Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Review of Human Studies. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2969-3004.
Wang Y, Chun OK, Song WO. Plasma and Dietary Antioxidant Status as Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Review of Human Studies. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8):2969-3004.
Wang, Ying; Chun, Ock K.; Song, Won O. 2013. "Plasma and Dietary Antioxidant Status as Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Review of Human Studies." Nutrients 5, no. 8: 2969-3004.