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Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress
Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos y Nutrición (ICTAN–CSIC), Madrid 28040, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (ISCIII), Madrid 28039, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2013; in revised form: 19 July 2013 / Accepted: 23 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE) containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5–20 μg/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 μM t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult.
Keywords: antioxidant defences; cocoa flavanols; dietary polyphenols; Ins-1E cells; oxidative biomarkers; type 2 diabetes mellitus
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Martín, M.Á.; Ramos, S.; Cordero-Herrero, I.; Bravo, L.; Goya, L. Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2955-2968.
Martín MÁ, Ramos S, Cordero-Herrero I, Bravo L, Goya L. Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8):2955-2968.
Martín, María Á.; Ramos, Sonia; Cordero-Herrero, Isabel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis. 2013. "Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress." Nutrients 5, no. 8: 2955-2968.