Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractVitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.
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Kienreich, K.; Tomaschitz, A.; Verheyen, N.; Pieber, T.; Gaksch, M.; Grübler, M.R.; Pilz, S. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3005-3021.
Kienreich K, Tomaschitz A, Verheyen N, Pieber T, Gaksch M, Grübler MR, Pilz S. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8):3005-3021.Chicago/Turabian Style
Kienreich, Katharina; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Verheyen, Nicolas; Pieber, Thomas; Gaksch, Martin; Grübler, Martin R.; Pilz, Stefan. 2013. "Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease." Nutrients 5, no. 8: 3005-3021.