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Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria
Specialist Clinic Bad Aussee, 8990 Bad Aussee, Austria
Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2013; in revised form: 25 June 2013 / Accepted: 23 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.
Keywords: vitamin D; 25-OH-cholecalciferol; vitamin D deficiency; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk factors; mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kienreich, K.; Tomaschitz, A.; Verheyen, N.; Pieber, T.; Gaksch, M.; Grübler, M.R.; Pilz, S. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3005-3021.
Kienreich K, Tomaschitz A, Verheyen N, Pieber T, Gaksch M, Grübler MR, Pilz S. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8):3005-3021.
Kienreich, Katharina; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Verheyen, Nicolas; Pieber, Thomas; Gaksch, Martin; Grübler, Martin R.; Pilz, Stefan. 2013. "Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease." Nutrients 5, no. 8: 3005-3021.