Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 3005-3021; doi:10.3390/nu5083005
Review

Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria 2 Specialist Clinic Bad Aussee, 8990 Bad Aussee, Austria 3 Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria 4 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2013; in revised form: 25 June 2013 / Accepted: 23 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.
Keywords: vitamin D; 25-OH-cholecalciferol; vitamin D deficiency; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk factors; mortality

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kienreich, K.; Tomaschitz, A.; Verheyen, N.; Pieber, T.; Gaksch, M.; Grübler, M.R.; Pilz, S. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3005-3021.

AMA Style

Kienreich K, Tomaschitz A, Verheyen N, Pieber T, Gaksch M, Grübler MR, Pilz S. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8):3005-3021.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kienreich, Katharina; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Verheyen, Nicolas; Pieber, Thomas; Gaksch, Martin; Grübler, Martin R.; Pilz, Stefan. 2013. "Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease." Nutrients 5, no. 8: 3005-3021.

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