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Plasma and Dietary Antioxidant Status as Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Review of Human Studies
Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 3005-3021; doi:10.3390/nu5083005
Review

Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

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Received: 7 May 2013 / Revised: 25 June 2013 / Accepted: 23 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.
Keywords: vitamin D; 25-OH-cholecalciferol; vitamin D deficiency; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk factors; mortality vitamin D; 25-OH-cholecalciferol; vitamin D deficiency; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk factors; mortality
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Kienreich, K.; Tomaschitz, A.; Verheyen, N.; Pieber, T.; Gaksch, M.; Grübler, M.R.; Pilz, S. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3005-3021.

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