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Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate
Sensory Evaluation Center, Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 April 2013; in revised form: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Abstract: Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.
Keywords: cocoa; cocoa flavanols; rejection thresholds; sensory evaluation; semisweet chocolate
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Harwood, M.L.; Ziegler, G.R.; Hayes, J.E. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2258-2267.
Harwood ML, Ziegler GR, Hayes JE. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate. Nutrients. 2013; 5(6):2258-2267.
Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E. 2013. "Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate." Nutrients 5, no. 6: 2258-2267.