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At-Risk Serum Cholesterol Profile at Both Ends of the Nutrition Spectrum in West African Adults? The Benin Study
TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, PO Box 6128, Downtown Station, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
TRANSNUT, Department of Nutrition, University of Montreal, PO Box 6128, Downtown Station, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
Bioversity International, c/o IITA, 08 BP 0932 Cotonou, Benin
UNICEF-Chad, BP 1146, N'Djaména, Chad
Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec City, G1V 0A6, Canada
University Institute of Cardiology and Pneumology and Division of Kinesiology, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, G1V 0A6, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 December 2012; in revised form: 27 February 2013 / Accepted: 28 March 2013 / Published: 19 April 2013
Abstract: Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), using as cut-offs 1.03 mmol/L in men and 1.29 mmol/L in women, was observed in more than 25% apparently healthy adults (n = 541) in a cross-sectional study on nutrition transition and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) in Benin, West Africa. Both overweight/obesity (35.3%) and underweight (11.3%) were present, displaying the double burden of malnutrition. We examined in more depth the association of low HDL-C with nutrition and with other CMRF. Metabolic syndrome components were assessed, plus the ratio of total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and serum homocysteine. Insulin resistance was based on Homeostasis Model Assessment. We also measured BMI and body composition by bio-impedance. Dietary quality was appraised with two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Low HDL-C was associated with much higher TC/HDL-C and more abdominal obesity in men and women and with more insulin resistance in women. The rate of low HDL-C was highest (41.9%) among the overweight/obese subjects (BMI ≥ 25), but it also reached 31.1% among the underweight (BMI < 18.5), compared with 17.3% among normal-weight subjects (p < 0.001). Lower dietary micronutrient adequacy, in particular, in vitamins A, B3, B12, zinc and calcium, was associated with low HDL-C when controlling for several confounders. This suggests that at-risk lipoprotein cholesterol may be associated with either underweight or overweight/obesity and with poor micronutrient intake.
Keywords: HDL-cholesterol; West Africa; metabolic syndrome; dietary quality; nutritional status; double burden of malnutrition; lifestyle; nutrition transition
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Delisle, H.; Ntandou, G.; Sodjinou, R.; Couillard, C.; Després, J.-P. At-Risk Serum Cholesterol Profile at Both Ends of the Nutrition Spectrum in West African Adults? The Benin Study. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1366-1383.
Delisle H, Ntandou G, Sodjinou R, Couillard C, Després J-P. At-Risk Serum Cholesterol Profile at Both Ends of the Nutrition Spectrum in West African Adults? The Benin Study. Nutrients. 2013; 5(4):1366-1383.
Delisle, Hélène; Ntandou, Gervais; Sodjinou, Roger; Couillard, Charles; Després, Jean-Pierre. 2013. "At-Risk Serum Cholesterol Profile at Both Ends of the Nutrition Spectrum in West African Adults? The Benin Study." Nutrients 5, no. 4: 1366-1383.