Nutrients 2013, 5(4), 1366-1383; doi:10.3390/nu5041366
Article

At-Risk Serum Cholesterol Profile at Both Ends of the Nutrition Spectrum in West African Adults? The Benin Study

1 TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, PO Box 6128, Downtown Station, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada 2 TRANSNUT, Department of Nutrition, University of Montreal, PO Box 6128, Downtown Station, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada 3 Bioversity International, c/o IITA, 08 BP 0932 Cotonou, Benin 4 UNICEF-Chad, BP 1146, N'Djaména, Chad 5 Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec City, G1V 0A6, Canada 6 University Institute of Cardiology and Pneumology and Division of Kinesiology, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, G1V 0A6, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 December 2012; in revised form: 27 February 2013 / Accepted: 28 March 2013 / Published: 19 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Abstract: Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), using as cut-offs 1.03 mmol/L in men and 1.29 mmol/L in women, was observed in more than 25% apparently healthy adults (n = 541) in a cross-sectional study on nutrition transition and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) in Benin, West Africa. Both overweight/obesity (35.3%) and underweight (11.3%) were present, displaying the double burden of malnutrition. We examined in more depth the association of low HDL-C with nutrition and with other CMRF. Metabolic syndrome components were assessed, plus the ratio of total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and serum homocysteine. Insulin resistance was based on Homeostasis Model Assessment. We also measured BMI and body composition by bio-impedance. Dietary quality was appraised with two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Low HDL-C was associated with much higher TC/HDL-C and more abdominal obesity in men and women and with more insulin resistance in women. The rate of low HDL-C was highest (41.9%) among the overweight/obese subjects (BMI ≥ 25), but it also reached 31.1% among the underweight (BMI < 18.5), compared with 17.3% among normal-weight subjects (p < 0.001). Lower dietary micronutrient adequacy, in particular, in vitamins A, B3, B12, zinc and calcium, was associated with low HDL-C when controlling for several confounders. This suggests that at-risk lipoprotein cholesterol may be associated with either underweight or overweight/obesity and with poor micronutrient intake.
Keywords: HDL-cholesterol; West Africa; metabolic syndrome; dietary quality; nutritional status; double burden of malnutrition; lifestyle; nutrition transition

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MDPI and ACS Style

Delisle, H.; Ntandou, G.; Sodjinou, R.; Couillard, C.; Després, J.-P. At-Risk Serum Cholesterol Profile at Both Ends of the Nutrition Spectrum in West African Adults? The Benin Study. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1366-1383.

AMA Style

Delisle H, Ntandou G, Sodjinou R, Couillard C, Després J-P. At-Risk Serum Cholesterol Profile at Both Ends of the Nutrition Spectrum in West African Adults? The Benin Study. Nutrients. 2013; 5(4):1366-1383.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Delisle, Hélène; Ntandou, Gervais; Sodjinou, Roger; Couillard, Charles; Després, Jean-Pierre. 2013. "At-Risk Serum Cholesterol Profile at Both Ends of the Nutrition Spectrum in West African Adults? The Benin Study." Nutrients 5, no. 4: 1366-1383.

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