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Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, College of Medicine, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
Division of Nephrology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
Division of Renal-Electrolyte and Hypertension, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2013; in revised form: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
Abstract: The ingestion of calcium, along with alkali, results in a well-described triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal insufficiency. Over time, the epidemiology and root cause of the syndrome have shifted, such that the disorder, originally called the milk-alkali syndrome, is now better described as the calcium-alkali syndrome. The calcium-alkali syndrome is an important cause of morbidity that may be on the rise, an unintended consequence of shifts in calcium and vitamin D intake in segments of the population. We review the pathophysiology of the calcium-alkali syndrome.
Keywords: calcium-alkali syndrome; milk-alkali syndrome; hypercalcemia
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MDPI and ACS Style
Patel, A.M.; Adeseun, G.A.; Goldfarb, S. Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4880-4893.
Patel AM, Adeseun GA, Goldfarb S. Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era. Nutrients. 2013; 5(12):4880-4893.
Patel, Ami M.; Adeseun, Gbemisola A.; Goldfarb, Stanley. 2013. "Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era." Nutrients 5, no. 12: 4880-4893.