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Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4880-4893; doi:10.3390/nu5124880

Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era

1,* , 2
1 Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, College of Medicine, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA 2 Division of Nephrology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA 3 Division of Renal-Electrolyte and Hypertension, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)
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The ingestion of calcium, along with alkali, results in a well-described triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal insufficiency. Over time, the epidemiology and root cause of the syndrome have shifted, such that the disorder, originally called the milk-alkali syndrome, is now better described as the calcium-alkali syndrome. The calcium-alkali syndrome is an important cause of morbidity that may be on the rise, an unintended consequence of shifts in calcium and vitamin D intake in segments of the population. We review the pathophysiology of the calcium-alkali syndrome.
Keywords: calcium-alkali syndrome; milk-alkali syndrome; hypercalcemia calcium-alkali syndrome; milk-alkali syndrome; hypercalcemia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Patel, A.M.; Adeseun, G.A.; Goldfarb, S. Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4880-4893.

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