Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4880-4893; doi:10.3390/nu5124880

Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era

1 Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, College of Medicine, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA 2 Division of Nephrology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA 3 Division of Renal-Electrolyte and Hypertension, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2013; in revised form: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)
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Abstract: The ingestion of calcium, along with alkali, results in a well-described triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal insufficiency. Over time, the epidemiology and root cause of the syndrome have shifted, such that the disorder, originally called the milk-alkali syndrome, is now better described as the calcium-alkali syndrome. The calcium-alkali syndrome is an important cause of morbidity that may be on the rise, an unintended consequence of shifts in calcium and vitamin D intake in segments of the population. We review the pathophysiology of the calcium-alkali syndrome.
Keywords: calcium-alkali syndrome; milk-alkali syndrome; hypercalcemia

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MDPI and ACS Style

Patel, A.M.; Adeseun, G.A.; Goldfarb, S. Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4880-4893.

AMA Style

Patel AM, Adeseun GA, Goldfarb S. Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era. Nutrients. 2013; 5(12):4880-4893.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Patel, Ami M.; Adeseun, Gbemisola A.; Goldfarb, Stanley. 2013. "Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era." Nutrients 5, no. 12: 4880-4893.

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