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Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4880-4893; doi:10.3390/nu5124880

Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, College of Medicine, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
Division of Nephrology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
Division of Renal-Electrolyte and Hypertension, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [188 KB, 16 December 2013; original version 27 November 2013]   |  


The ingestion of calcium, along with alkali, results in a well-described triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal insufficiency. Over time, the epidemiology and root cause of the syndrome have shifted, such that the disorder, originally called the milk-alkali syndrome, is now better described as the calcium-alkali syndrome. The calcium-alkali syndrome is an important cause of morbidity that may be on the rise, an unintended consequence of shifts in calcium and vitamin D intake in segments of the population. We review the pathophysiology of the calcium-alkali syndrome.
Keywords: calcium-alkali syndrome; milk-alkali syndrome; hypercalcemia calcium-alkali syndrome; milk-alkali syndrome; hypercalcemia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Patel, A.M.; Adeseun, G.A.; Goldfarb, S. Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4880-4893.

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