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Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults
Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2013; in revised form: 23 August 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Abstract: Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.
Keywords: older adults; US dietary calcium intakes; calcium supplements; calcium balance; calcium homeostasis; vitamin D; bone mineral density; skeletal health; calcium loading; arterial calcification; cardiovascular disease; chronic renal disease; osteoporosis; recommended dietary allowance for calcium
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MDPI and ACS Style
Anderson, J.J.B.; Klemmer, P.J. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3964-3974.
Anderson JJB, Klemmer PJ. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults. Nutrients. 2013; 5(10):3964-3974.
Anderson, John J.B.; Klemmer, Philip J. 2013. "Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults." Nutrients 5, no. 10: 3964-3974.