Next Article in Journal
IGF-1, the Cross Road of the Nutritional, Inflammatory and Hormonal Pathways to Frailty
Next Article in Special Issue
The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients
Previous Article in Journal
Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate
Previous Article in Special Issue
Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients
Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 4174-4183; doi:10.3390/nu5104174

Maize Prolamins Could Induce a Gluten-Like Cellular Immune Response in Some Celiac Disease Patients

1 Department of Nutrition, Research Center for Food and Development (CIAD, A.C.), Carr. La Victoria, Km. 0.6, Hermosillo, Sonora 83304, Mexico 2 Nutrition Sciences and Gastronomy Unit, University of Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa 80019, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2013 / Revised: 2 October 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Celiac Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [191 KB, 22 October 2013; original version 21 October 2013]


Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune-mediated enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten in genetically prone individuals. The current treatment for CD is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, in some CD patients following a strict gluten-free diet, the symptoms do not remit. These cases may be refractory CD or due to gluten contamination; however, the lack of response could be related to other dietary ingredients, such as maize, which is one of the most common alternatives to wheat used in the gluten-free diet. In some CD patients, as a rare event, peptides from maize prolamins could induce a celiac-like immune response by similar or alternative pathogenic mechanisms to those used by wheat gluten peptides. This is supported by several shared features between wheat and maize prolamins and by some experimental results. Given that gluten peptides induce an immune response of the intestinal mucosa both in vivo and in vitro, peptides from maize prolamins could also be tested to determine whether they also induce a cellular immune response. Hypothetically, maize prolamins could be harmful for a very limited subgroup of CD patients, especially those that are non-responsive, and if it is confirmed, they should follow, in addition to a gluten-free, a maize-free diet.
Keywords: celiac disease; cellular immune response; maize prolamins; zeins celiac disease; cellular immune response; maize prolamins; zeins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Ortiz-Sánchez, J.P.; Cabrera-Chávez, F.; de la Barca, A.M.C. Maize Prolamins Could Induce a Gluten-Like Cellular Immune Response in Some Celiac Disease Patients. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4174-4183.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert