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Maize Prolamins Could Induce a Gluten-Like Cellular Immune Response in Some Celiac Disease Patients
Department of Nutrition, Research Center for Food and Development (CIAD, A.C.), Carr. La Victoria, Km. 0.6, Hermosillo, Sonora 83304, Mexico
Nutrition Sciences and Gastronomy Unit, University of Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa 80019, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2013; in revised form: 2 October 2013 / Accepted: 10 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
Abstract: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune-mediated enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten in genetically prone individuals. The current treatment for CD is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, in some CD patients following a strict gluten-free diet, the symptoms do not remit. These cases may be refractory CD or due to gluten contamination; however, the lack of response could be related to other dietary ingredients, such as maize, which is one of the most common alternatives to wheat used in the gluten-free diet. In some CD patients, as a rare event, peptides from maize prolamins could induce a celiac-like immune response by similar or alternative pathogenic mechanisms to those used by wheat gluten peptides. This is supported by several shared features between wheat and maize prolamins and by some experimental results. Given that gluten peptides induce an immune response of the intestinal mucosa both in vivo and in vitro, peptides from maize prolamins could also be tested to determine whether they also induce a cellular immune response. Hypothetically, maize prolamins could be harmful for a very limited subgroup of CD patients, especially those that are non-responsive, and if it is confirmed, they should follow, in addition to a gluten-free, a maize-free diet.
Keywords: celiac disease; cellular immune response; maize prolamins; zeins
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Ortiz-Sánchez, J.P.; Cabrera-Chávez, F.; de la Barca, A.M.C. Maize Prolamins Could Induce a Gluten-Like Cellular Immune Response in Some Celiac Disease Patients. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4174-4183.
Ortiz-Sánchez JP, Cabrera-Chávez F, de la Barca AMC. Maize Prolamins Could Induce a Gluten-Like Cellular Immune Response in Some Celiac Disease Patients. Nutrients. 2013; 5(10):4174-4183.
Ortiz-Sánchez, Juan P.; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; de la Barca, Ana M.C. 2013. "Maize Prolamins Could Induce a Gluten-Like Cellular Immune Response in Some Celiac Disease Patients." Nutrients 5, no. 10: 4174-4183.