Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 3975-3992; doi:10.3390/nu5103975
Article

Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients

1 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, VU University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam 1007 MB, The Netherlands 2 Department of Gastroenterology, Celiac Centre Amsterdam, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam 1007 MB, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 July 2013; in revised form: 13 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Celiac Disease)
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Abstract: Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD). This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current “early diagnosed” untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years) and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy) D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet). Almost all CD-patients (87%) had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss), 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5), and 29% of the patients were overweight (BMI > 25). Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher) grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired) nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly “early diagnosed” CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment.
Keywords: vitamins; minerals; celiac disease; deficiency; adult; Body Mass Index

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wierdsma, N.J.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.; Berkenpas, M.; Mulder, C.J.J.; van Bodegraven, A.A. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3975-3992.

AMA Style

Wierdsma NJ, van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren MAE, Berkenpas M, Mulder CJJ, van Bodegraven AA. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients. Nutrients. 2013; 5(10):3975-3992.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wierdsma, Nicolette J.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A.E.; Berkenpas, Marijke; Mulder, Chris J.J.; van Bodegraven, Ad A. 2013. "Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients." Nutrients 5, no. 10: 3975-3992.

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