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The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients
Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, c/Profesor García González 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
Instituto Hispalense de Pediatría, c/Guadalbullón 2, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (C.S.I.C.), Alameda del Obispo s/n, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2013; in revised form: 7 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
Abstract: A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine associated with a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins. The complete elimination of gluten proteins contained in cereals from the diet is the key to celiac disease management. However, this generates numerous social and economic repercussions due to the ubiquity of gluten in foods. The research presented in this review focuses on the current status of alternative cereals and pseudocereals and their derivatives obtained by natural selection, breeding programs and transgenic or enzymatic technology, potential tolerated by celiac people. Finally, we describe several strategies for detoxification of dietary gluten. These included enzymatic cleavage of gliadin fragment by Prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs) from different organisms, degradation of toxic peptides by germinating cereal enzymes and transamidation of cereal flours. This information can be used to search for and develop cereals with the baking and nutritional qualities of toxic cereals, but which do not exacerbate this condition.
Keywords: celiac disease; gluten-free diet; cereals; pseudocereals; gluten detoxification
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Comino, I.; de Lourdes Moreno, M.; Real, A.; Rodríguez-Herrera, A.; Barro, F.; Sousa, C. The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4250-4268.
Comino I, de Lourdes Moreno M, Real A, Rodríguez-Herrera A, Barro F, Sousa C. The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients. Nutrients. 2013; 5(10):4250-4268.
Comino, Isabel; de Lourdes Moreno, María; Real, Ana; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Barro, Francisco; Sousa, Carolina. 2013. "The Gluten-Free Diet: Testing Alternative Cereals Tolerated by Celiac Patients." Nutrients 5, no. 10: 4250-4268.