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IGF-1, the Cross Road of the Nutritional, Inflammatory and Hormonal Pathways to Frailty
Geriatric Rehabilitation Department, University Hospital of Parma, Via Gramsci, 14, Parma (PR) 43126, Italy
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Geriatrics, Food Sciences Unit and Endocrinology of Aging Unit, University of Parma, Via Gramsci, 14, Parma (PR) 43126, Italy
Azienda USL Piacenza, Via Taverna, 49, Piacenza (PC) 23121, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2013; in revised form: 1 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
Abstract: The decline in functional capacity is a heterogeneous phenomenon in the elderly. An accelerated ageing determines a frail status. It results in an increased vulnerability to stressors for decreased physiological reserves. The early identification of a frail status is essential for preventing loss of functional capacity, and its clinical consequences. Frailty and mobility limitation result from an interplay of different pathways including multiple anabolic deficiency, inflammation, oxidative stress, and a poor nutritional status. However, the age-related decline in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) bioactivity deserves special attention as it could represent the ideal crossroad of endocrine, inflammatory, and nutritional pathways to frailty. Several minerals, namely magnesium, selenium, and zinc, appear to be important determinants of IGF-1 bioactivity. This review aims to provide an overview of the potential usefulness of nutrients modulating IGF-1 as potential therapeutic targets in the prevention of mobility limitation occurring in frail older subjects.
Keywords: ageing; IGF-1; selenium; magnesium; zinc; micronutrients; frailty
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MDPI and ACS Style
Maggio, M.; De Vita, F.; Lauretani, F.; Buttò, V.; Bondi, G.; Cattabiani, C.; Nouvenne, A.; Meschi, T.; Dall'Aglio, E.; Ceda, G.P. IGF-1, the Cross Road of the Nutritional, Inflammatory and Hormonal Pathways to Frailty. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4184-4205.
Maggio M, De Vita F, Lauretani F, Buttò V, Bondi G, Cattabiani C, Nouvenne A, Meschi T, Dall'Aglio E, Ceda GP. IGF-1, the Cross Road of the Nutritional, Inflammatory and Hormonal Pathways to Frailty. Nutrients. 2013; 5(10):4184-4205.
Maggio, Marcello; De Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Buttò, Valeria; Bondi, Giuliana; Cattabiani, Chiara; Nouvenne, Antonio; Meschi, Tiziana; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ceda, Gian P. 2013. "IGF-1, the Cross Road of the Nutritional, Inflammatory and Hormonal Pathways to Frailty." Nutrients 5, no. 10: 4184-4205.