Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 4184-4205; doi:10.3390/nu5104184
Review

IGF-1, the Cross Road of the Nutritional, Inflammatory and Hormonal Pathways to Frailty

1 Geriatric Rehabilitation Department, University Hospital of Parma, Via Gramsci, 14, Parma (PR) 43126, Italy 2 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Geriatrics, Food Sciences Unit and Endocrinology of Aging Unit, University of Parma, Via Gramsci, 14, Parma (PR) 43126, Italy 3 Azienda USL Piacenza, Via Taverna, 49, Piacenza (PC) 23121, Italy These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2013; in revised form: 1 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Influences on Age-Related Frailty)
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Abstract: The decline in functional capacity is a heterogeneous phenomenon in the elderly. An accelerated ageing determines a frail status. It results in an increased vulnerability to stressors for decreased physiological reserves. The early identification of a frail status is essential for preventing loss of functional capacity, and its clinical consequences. Frailty and mobility limitation result from an interplay of different pathways including multiple anabolic deficiency, inflammation, oxidative stress, and a poor nutritional status. However, the age-related decline in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) bioactivity deserves special attention as it could represent the ideal crossroad of endocrine, inflammatory, and nutritional pathways to frailty. Several minerals, namely magnesium, selenium, and zinc, appear to be important determinants of IGF-1 bioactivity. This review aims to provide an overview of the potential usefulness of nutrients modulating IGF-1 as potential therapeutic targets in the prevention of mobility limitation occurring in frail older subjects.
Keywords: ageing; IGF-1; selenium; magnesium; zinc; micronutrients; frailty

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maggio, M.; De Vita, F.; Lauretani, F.; Buttò, V.; Bondi, G.; Cattabiani, C.; Nouvenne, A.; Meschi, T.; Dall'Aglio, E.; Ceda, G.P. IGF-1, the Cross Road of the Nutritional, Inflammatory and Hormonal Pathways to Frailty. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4184-4205.

AMA Style

Maggio M, De Vita F, Lauretani F, Buttò V, Bondi G, Cattabiani C, Nouvenne A, Meschi T, Dall'Aglio E, Ceda GP. IGF-1, the Cross Road of the Nutritional, Inflammatory and Hormonal Pathways to Frailty. Nutrients. 2013; 5(10):4184-4205.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maggio, Marcello; De Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Buttò, Valeria; Bondi, Giuliana; Cattabiani, Chiara; Nouvenne, Antonio; Meschi, Tiziana; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ceda, Gian P. 2013. "IGF-1, the Cross Road of the Nutritional, Inflammatory and Hormonal Pathways to Frailty." Nutrients 5, no. 10: 4184-4205.

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