Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 3839-3853; doi:10.3390/nu5103839
Review

Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders

Received: 20 August 2013; in revised form: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 18 September 2013 / Published: 26 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Celiac Disease)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Non Celiac Gluten sensitivity (NCGS) was originally described in the 1980s and recently a “re-discovered” disorder characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected with either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). Although NCGS frequency is still unclear, epidemiological data have been generated that can help establishing the magnitude of the problem. Clinical studies further defined the identity of NCGS and its implications in human disease. An overlap between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and NCGS has been detected, requiring even more stringent diagnostic criteria. Several studies suggested a relationship between NCGS and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly autism and schizophrenia. The first case reports of NCGS in children have been described. Lack of biomarkers is still a major limitation of clinical studies, making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten related disorders. Recent studies raised the possibility that, beside gluten, wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors and low-fermentable, poorly-absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates can contribute to symptoms (at least those related to IBS) experienced by NCGS patients. In this paper we report the major advances and current trends on NCGS.
Keywords: gluten sensitivity; celiac disease; wheat allergy; gluten-related disorders; gluten-free diet
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MDPI and ACS Style

Catassi, C.; Bai, J.C.; Bonaz, B.; Bouma, G.; Calabrò, A.; Carroccio, A.; Castillejo, G.; Ciacci, C.; Cristofori, F.; Dolinsek, J.; Francavilla, R.; Elli, L.; Green, P.; Holtmeier, W.; Koehler, P.; Koletzko, S.; Meinhold, C.; Sanders, D.; Schumann, M.; Schuppan, D.; Ullrich, R.; Vécsei, A.; Volta, U.; Zevallos, V.; Sapone, A.; Fasano, A. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3839-3853.

AMA Style

Catassi C, Bai JC, Bonaz B, Bouma G, Calabrò A, Carroccio A, Castillejo G, Ciacci C, Cristofori F, Dolinsek J, Francavilla R, Elli L, Green P, Holtmeier W, Koehler P, Koletzko S, Meinhold C, Sanders D, Schumann M, Schuppan D, Ullrich R, Vécsei A, Volta U, Zevallos V, Sapone A, Fasano A. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders. Nutrients. 2013; 5(10):3839-3853.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Catassi, Carlo; Bai, Julio C.; Bonaz, Bruno; Bouma, Gerd; Calabrò, Antonio; Carroccio, Antonio; Castillejo, Gemma; Ciacci, Carolina; Cristofori, Fernanda; Dolinsek, Jernej; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Elli, Luca; Green, Peter; Holtmeier, Wolfgang; Koehler, Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Meinhold, Christof; Sanders, David; Schumann, Michael; Schuppan, Detlef; Ullrich, Reiner; Vécsei, Andreas; Volta, Umberto; Zevallos, Victor; Sapone, Anna; Fasano, Alessio. 2013. "Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders." Nutrients 5, no. 10: 3839-3853.

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