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Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 3839-3853; doi:10.3390/nu5103839

Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders

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1 Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60121, Italy 2 Departamento de Medicina, Hospital de Gastroenterología "Dr. Carlos Bonorino Udaondo", Buenos Aires 1264, Argentina 3 Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, CHU Grenoble 38043, France 4 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam 1081 HV, The Netherlands 5 Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence 50134, Italy 6 Department of Internal Medicine, "Giovanni Paolo II" Hospital, Sciacca (AG) and University of Palermo, Sciacca 92019, Italy 7 Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43204, Spain 8 Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Baronissi Campus, Salerno 84081, Italy 9 Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari, Bari 70124, Italy 10 Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Centre Maribor, Maribor 2000, Slovenia 11 Centro Prevenzione e Diagnosi Malattia Celiaca Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda, Milan 20122, Italy 12 Department of Medicine, Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA 13 Division of Gastroenterology and Internal Medicine, Hospital Porz am Rhein, Köln 51149, Germany 14 German Research Center for Food Chemistry, Leibniz Institute, Freising 85354, Germany 15 Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich Medical Center, Munich 80337, Germany 16 Practice of Nutrition Therapy Meinhold & Team, Köln 50674, Germany 17 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital and University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK 18 Department of Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and Infectiology, Charité University Medicine, Berlin 10203, Germany 19 Department of Medicine I, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz 55131, Germany 20 Division of Gastroenterology and Celiac Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA 21 St. Anna Children's Hospital, Vienna 1090, Austria 22 Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna 40138, Italy 23 Department of Gastroenterology, Second University of Naples, Naples 80136, Italy 24 Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02129, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2013 / Revised: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 18 September 2013 / Published: 26 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Celiac Disease)
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Non Celiac Gluten sensitivity (NCGS) was originally described in the 1980s and recently a “re-discovered” disorder characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected with either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). Although NCGS frequency is still unclear, epidemiological data have been generated that can help establishing the magnitude of the problem. Clinical studies further defined the identity of NCGS and its implications in human disease. An overlap between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and NCGS has been detected, requiring even more stringent diagnostic criteria. Several studies suggested a relationship between NCGS and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly autism and schizophrenia. The first case reports of NCGS in children have been described. Lack of biomarkers is still a major limitation of clinical studies, making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten related disorders. Recent studies raised the possibility that, beside gluten, wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors and low-fermentable, poorly-absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates can contribute to symptoms (at least those related to IBS) experienced by NCGS patients. In this paper we report the major advances and current trends on NCGS.
Keywords: gluten sensitivity; celiac disease; wheat allergy; gluten-related disorders; gluten-free diet gluten sensitivity; celiac disease; wheat allergy; gluten-related disorders; gluten-free diet
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Catassi, C.; Bai, J.C.; Bonaz, B.; Bouma, G.; Calabrò, A.; Carroccio, A.; Castillejo, G.; Ciacci, C.; Cristofori, F.; Dolinsek, J.; Francavilla, R.; Elli, L.; Green, P.; Holtmeier, W.; Koehler, P.; Koletzko, S.; Meinhold, C.; Sanders, D.; Schumann, M.; Schuppan, D.; Ullrich, R.; Vécsei, A.; Volta, U.; Zevallos, V.; Sapone, A.; Fasano, A. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3839-3853.

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