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Nutrients 2012, 4(6), 542-553; doi:10.3390/nu4060542
Article

Changes in the Amino Acid Composition of Bogue (Boops boops) Fish during Storage at Different Temperatures by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

1
, 2
, 1
, 3
 and 1,4,*
1 Department of Food Science, University of Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, Cesena 47023 (FC), Italy 2 Interdepartmental Centre for Industrial Agri-Food Research c/o Campus of Food Science, University of Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, Cesena 47521 (FC), Italy 3 Department of Veterinary Medical Science, Alma Mater Studiorum–University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano dell’Emilia (BO), Italy 4 Center of Magnetic Resonance, University of Florence, Via L. Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino 50019 (FI), Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2012 / Revised: 4 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 20 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2011)
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Abstract

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to obtain information about the changes occurring in Bogue (Boops boops) fish during storage. For this purpose, 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 600 MHz on trichloroacetic acid extracts of fish flesh stored over a 15 days period both at 4 °C and on ice. Such spectra allowed the identification and quantification of amino acids, together with the main organic acids and alcohols. The concentration of acidic and basic free amino acids was generally found to increase and decrease during storage, respectively. These concentration changes were slow during the first days, as a consequence of protein autolysis, and at higher rates afterward, resulting from microbial development. Two of the amino acids that showed the greatest concentration change were alanine and glycine, known to have a key role in determining the individual taste of different fish species. The concentration of serine decreased during storage, as highlighted in the literature for frozen fish samples. Differences in the amino acids concentration trends were found to be related to the different storage temperatures from day 4 onwards.
Keywords: fish; freshness index; 1H-NMR; free amino acids (FAAs); quality assessment; metabolic profile; storage fish; freshness index; 1H-NMR; free amino acids (FAAs); quality assessment; metabolic profile; storage
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ciampa, A.; Picone, G.; Laghi, L.; Nikzad, H.; Capozzi, F. Changes in the Amino Acid Composition of Bogue (Boops boops) Fish during Storage at Different Temperatures by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy. Nutrients 2012, 4, 542-553.

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