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1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America
Cancer Research Center, C.A.R.S.O. Consortium, Prov.le Casamassima Valenzano, Km 3, Bari 70010, Italy
Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Technology, Di.S.Te.B.A., University of Salento, Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, Lecce 73100, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 January 2012; in revised form: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 26 April 2012 / Published: 4 May 2012
Abstract: Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy’s leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain), Kalamata (Greece) and Sfax (Tunisia). The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples) and the second group (2 samples) showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples) were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils) tested were closer to Greek (in particular) and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions.
Keywords: NMR spectroscopy; extra virgin olive oil; U.S. market oils; food origin characterization
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Del Coco, L.; Schena, F.P.; Fanizzi, F.P. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America. Nutrients 2012, 4, 343-355.
Del Coco L, Schena FP, Fanizzi FP. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America. Nutrients. 2012; 4(5):343-355.
Del Coco, Laura; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo. 2012. "1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Olive Oils Commercially Available as Italian Products in the United States of America." Nutrients 4, no. 5: 343-355.