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Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 805-819; doi:10.3390/nu2080805
Article

A Food Frequency Questionnaire for the Assessment of Calcium, Vitamin D and Vitamin K: A Pilot Validation Study

1
,
1
 and
2,*
1 Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, 1200 Main St W. Hamilton ON L8N 3Z5, Canada 2 Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, 1200 Main St W. Hamilton ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 June 2010 / Revised: 16 July 2010 / Accepted: 17 July 2010 / Published: 28 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
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Abstract

The study objective was to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K intakes in overweight and obese postmenopausal community-dwelling women. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day diet record (5DDR) that also included assessment of supplement intake. Strong correlations between methods were observed for all nutrients (r = 0.63, 0.89, 0.54 for calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K, respectively) and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the FFQ overestimated intakes for calcium, by 576 mg/day (95% CI, −668 to 1,821 mg/day), for vitamin D by 75 IU/day (95% CI, −359 to 510 IU/day), and for vitamin K by 167 mcg/day (95% CI, −233 to 568 mcg/day). This pilot study showed promising validation evidence for the use of this FFQ, which focuses on calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K intakes in postmenopausal women, as a screening tool in clinical and research settings.
Keywords: osteoporosis; bone; calcium; vitamin D; vitamin K; food frequency questionnaire; validation osteoporosis; bone; calcium; vitamin D; vitamin K; food frequency questionnaire; validation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Pritchard, J.M.; Seechurn, T.; Atkinson, S.A. A Food Frequency Questionnaire for the Assessment of Calcium, Vitamin D and Vitamin K: A Pilot Validation Study. Nutrients 2010, 2, 805-819.

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