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Nutrients, Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of which ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are the two [...] Read more.
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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Nutrition and Liver Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 9; doi:10.3390/nu10010009
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
Malnutrition in children and adults with advanced liver disease represents a tremendous challenge as the nutritional problems are multifactorial. This Editorial comments the articles appearing in this special issue of Nutrients, “Nutrition and Liver disease” dealing with multiple diagnostic and therapeutic features
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Malnutrition in children and adults with advanced liver disease represents a tremendous challenge as the nutritional problems are multifactorial. This Editorial comments the articles appearing in this special issue of Nutrients, “Nutrition and Liver disease” dealing with multiple diagnostic and therapeutic features that relate the outcomes of liver disease to nutrition. To improve quality of life and prevent nutrition-related medical complications, patients diagnosed with advanced liver disease should have their nutritional status promptly assessed and be supported by appropriate dietary interventions. Furthermore specific food supplements and/or restriction diets are often necessary for those with hepatic conditions associated with an underlying metabolic or nutritional or intestinal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Nutrients in 2017
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 99; doi:10.3390/nu10010099
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Nutrients maintains high quality standards for its published papers [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Chronic Monosodium Glutamate Administration Induced Hyperalgesia in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 1; doi:10.3390/nu10010001
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely used food additive. Although it is generally considered safe, some questions regarding the impact of its use on general health have arisen. Several reports correlate MSG consumption with a series of unwanted reactions, including headaches and mechanical
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Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely used food additive. Although it is generally considered safe, some questions regarding the impact of its use on general health have arisen. Several reports correlate MSG consumption with a series of unwanted reactions, including headaches and mechanical sensitivity in pericranial muscles. Endogenous glutamate plays a significant role in nociceptive processing, this neurotransmitter being associated with hyperalgesia and central sensitization. One of the mechanisms underlying these phenomena is the stimulation of Ca2+/calmodulin sensitive nitric oxide synthase, and a subsequent increase in nitric oxide production. This molecule is a key player in nociceptive processing, with implications in acute and chronic pain states. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of this food additive on the nociceptive threshold when given orally to mice. Hot-plate and formalin tests were used to assess nociceptive behaviour. We also tried to determine if a correlation between chronic administration of MSG and variations in central nitric oxide (NO) concentration could be established. We found that a dose of 300 mg/kg MSG given for 21 days reduces the pain threshold and is associated with a significant increase in brain NO level. The implications of these findings on food additive-drug interaction, and on pain perception in healthy humans, as well as in those suffering from affections involving chronic pain, are still to be investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Age on Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin, Glucagon, Ghrelin, CCK, GIP, and GLP-1 Responses to Whey Protein Ingestion
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 2; doi:10.3390/nu10010002
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Protein-rich supplements are used widely to prevent and manage undernutrition in older people. We have previously shown that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey protein—although the effects of age on appetite-related gut hormones are largely
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Protein-rich supplements are used widely to prevent and manage undernutrition in older people. We have previously shown that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey protein—although the effects of age on appetite-related gut hormones are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the acute effects of whey protein loads on blood glucose and plasma gut hormone concentrations in older and younger adults. Sixteen healthy older (eight men, eight women; mean ± SEM: age: 72 ± 1 years; body mass index: 25 ± 1 kg/m2) and 16 younger (eight men, eight women; 24 ± 1 years; 23 ± 0.4 kg/m2) adults were studied on three occasions in which they ingested 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) whey protein, or a flavored-water control drink (~2 kcal). At regular intervals over 180 min, blood glucose and plasma insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured. Plasma ghrelin was dose-dependently suppressed and insulin, glucagon, CCK, GIP, and GLP-1 concentrations were dose-dependently increased by the whey protein ingestion, while blood glucose concentrations were comparable during all study days. The stimulation of plasma CCK and GIP concentrations was greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, orally ingested whey protein resulted in load-dependent gut hormone responses, which were greater for plasma CCK and GIP in older compared to younger adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin E (α- and γ-Tocopherol) Levels in the Community: Distribution, Clinical and Biochemical Correlates, and Association with Dietary Patterns
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 3; doi:10.3390/nu10010003
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Little is known about the distribution and determinants of circulating vitamin E levels in a German population. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the distribution of both α- and γ-tocopherol levels, identified their clinical and biochemical correlates, and assessed their relationships with a
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Little is known about the distribution and determinants of circulating vitamin E levels in a German population. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the distribution of both α- and γ-tocopherol levels, identified their clinical and biochemical correlates, and assessed their relationships with a priori and a posteriori derived dietary patterns. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection in 641 individuals (mean-age: 61 years; 40.6% women). Correlates of both markers were determined using linear regression with backward selection. Using a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), an a priori defined vitamin E-rich dietary pattern was constructed, and three a posteriori derived dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Each pattern was related to α- and γ-tocopherol levels using linear regression. Median concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol were 31.54 μmol/L and 1.35 µmol/L, respectively. 57.6% of participants had α-tocopherol levels >30 µmol/L. Triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL)- and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and vitamin E supplementation were identified as correlates of vitamin E levels. After excluding supplement users, a dietary pattern rich in meat, bread, fats, potatoes, and sugar/confectionery was inversely related to α-tocopherol levels (β, −0.032, SE = 0.016; p = 0.047). Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the actual impact of the reported findings in terms of nutrition and health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Contribution of Dietary Supplements to Nutritional Adequacy by Socioeconomic Subgroups in Adults of the United States
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 4; doi:10.3390/nu10010004
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 identified vitamins A, C, D, and E, in addition to calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline, and fiber as “underconsumed nutrients”. Based on nationally representative data on 10,698 adults
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Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 identified vitamins A, C, D, and E, in addition to calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline, and fiber as “underconsumed nutrients”. Based on nationally representative data on 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2009–2012, assessments were made of socioeconomic differences, based on the Poverty Income Ratio (PIR), in terms of the association of dietary supplement use on nutrient intake and nutrient inadequacies. Compared to food alone, the use of any dietary supplement plus food was associated with significantly (p < 0.01) higher intakes of 15–16 of 19 nutrients examined in all socioeconomic groups; and significantly reduced rates of inadequacy for 10/17 nutrients in the subgroup PIR > 1.85 (not poor), but only 4–5/17 nutrients (calcium and vitamins A, C, D, E) for the poor and nearly poor subgroups (PIR < 1.35 and PIR 1.35 to ≤1.85, respectively). An increased prevalence of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) was seen for 3–9/13 nutrients, but all were less than 5% in the PIR subgroups. In conclusion, dietary supplement use was associated with an increased micronutrient intake, decreased inadequacies, and a slight increase in the prevalence of intakes above the UL, with greater benefits seen in the PIR > 1.85 subgroup. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Combination of Coffee Compounds Shows Insulin-Sensitizing and Hepatoprotective Effects in a Rat Model of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 6; doi:10.3390/nu10010006
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Since coffee may help to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), we aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a coffee-based supplement on different features of diet-induced MetS. In this study, 24 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control or
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Since coffee may help to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), we aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a coffee-based supplement on different features of diet-induced MetS. In this study, 24 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control or nutraceuticals groups to receive a high-fat/high-fructose diet with or without a mixture of caffeic acid (30 mg/day), trigonelline (20 mg/day), and cafestol (1 mg/day) for 12 weeks. An additional 11 rats were assigned to an acute crossover study. In the chronic experiment, nutraceuticals did not alter body weight or glycemic control, but improved fed hyperinsulinemia (mean difference = 30.80 mU/L, p = 0.044) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (mean difference = 15.29, p = 0.033), and plasma adiponectin levels (mean difference = −0.99 µg/mL, p = 0.048). The impact of nutraceuticals on post-prandial glycemia tended to be more pronounced after acute administration than at the end of the chronic study. Circulating (mean difference = 4.75 U/L, p = 0.014) and intrahepatocellular alanine transaminase activity was assessed by hyperpolarized-13C nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy and found to be reduced by coffee nutraceuticals at endpoint. There was also a tendency towards lower liver triglyceride content and histological steatosis score in the intervention group. In conclusion, a mixture of coffee nutraceuticals improved insulin sensitivity and exhibited hepatoprotective effects in a rat model of MetS. Higher dosages with or without caffeine deserve to be studied in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Claimed Effects, Outcome Variables and Methods of Measurement for Health Claims Proposed Under European Community Regulation 1924/2006 in the Framework of Maintenance of Skin Function
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 7; doi:10.3390/nu10010007
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 16 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Evidence suggests a protective role for several nutrients and foods in the maintenance of skin function. Nevertheless, all the requests for authorization to use health claims under Article 13(5) in the framework of maintenance of skin function presented to the European Food Safety
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Evidence suggests a protective role for several nutrients and foods in the maintenance of skin function. Nevertheless, all the requests for authorization to use health claims under Article 13(5) in the framework of maintenance of skin function presented to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) have received a negative opinion. Reasons for such failures are mainly due to an insufficient substantiation of the claimed effects, including the choice of inappropriate outcome variables (OVs) and methods of measurement (MMs). The present paper reports the results of an investigation aimed at collecting, collating and critically analyzing the information with relation to claimed effects (CEs), OVs and MMs related to skin health compliance with Regulation 1924/2006. CEs, OVs and MMs were collected from both the EFSA Guidance document and from the authorization requests of health claims under Article 13(5). The critical analysis of OVs and MMs was based on a literature review, and was aimed at defining their appropriateness (alone or in combination with others) in the context of a specific CE. The results highlight the importance of an adequate choice of OVs and MMs for an effective substantiation of the claims. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and the Skin: Roles in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Malnutrition and 28-Day Mortality and Intensive Care Length-of-Stay in the Critically ill: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 10; doi:10.3390/nu10010010
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
There is limited evidence for the association between malnutrition and mortality as well as Intensive Care Unit length-of-stay (ICU-LOS) in critically ill patients. We aimed to examine the aforementioned associations by conducting a prospective cohort study in an ICU of a Singapore tertiary
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There is limited evidence for the association between malnutrition and mortality as well as Intensive Care Unit length-of-stay (ICU-LOS) in critically ill patients. We aimed to examine the aforementioned associations by conducting a prospective cohort study in an ICU of a Singapore tertiary hospital. Between August 2015 and October 2016, all adult patients with ≥ 24 h of ICU-LOS were included. The 7-point Subjective Global Assessment (7-point SGA) was used to determine patients’ nutritional status within 48 h of ICU admission. Multivariable regressions were conducted in two ways: (1) presence versus absence of malnutrition, and (2) dose-dependent association for each 1-point decrease in the 7-point SGA. There were 439 patients of which 28.0% were malnourished, and the 28-day mortality rate was 28.0%. Malnutrition was associated with an increased risk of 28-day mortality (adjusted Relative Risk 1.33 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.05–1.69)), and this risk increased with a greater degree of malnutrition (adjusted Relative Risk 1.08 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.00–1.16) for each 1-point decrease in the 7-point SGA). No significant association was found between malnutrition and ICU-LOS. The results of this study indicated a clear association between malnutrition and higher 28-day mortality in critically ill patients. The association between malnutrition and ICU-LOS could not be replicated and hence requires further evaluation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Is Skin Coloration Measured by Reflectance Spectroscopy Related to Intake of Nutrient-Dense Foods? A Cross-Sectional Evaluation in Australian Young Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 11; doi:10.3390/nu10010011
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
The current study examines associations between the dietary intakes of nutrient-dense foods, measured using brief indices and skin coloration, measured using reflectance spectroscopy in young adults. This is a cross-sectional analysis of 148 young Australian males and females (55% female) aged 18 to
[...] Read more.
The current study examines associations between the dietary intakes of nutrient-dense foods, measured using brief indices and skin coloration, measured using reflectance spectroscopy in young adults. This is a cross-sectional analysis of 148 young Australian males and females (55% female) aged 18 to 25 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, with responses used to calculate two dietary indices: (i) the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS); and (ii) the Fruit And Vegetable VAriety Score (FAVVA). Skin yellowness was measured at three body locations using reflectance spectroscopy. Associations were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients, regression analysis, and agreement using weighted kappa (Kw). Significant, moderate correlations were found between skin yellowness and diet index scores for the ARFS (ρ = 0.30, p < 0.001) and FAVVA score (ρ = 0.39, p < 0.001). These remained significant after adjustment for confounders (total fat intake, sex, skin lightness) and for agreement based on categorical rankings. Results suggest that measurement of skin coloration by reflectance spectroscopy can be used as an indicator of overall dietary quality and variety in young adults. Further exploration in diverse populations is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and the Skin: Roles in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Vitamers Affect Vitamin D Status Differently in Young Healthy Males
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 12; doi:10.3390/nu10010012
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
Dietary intake of vitamin D includes vitamin D3 (vitD3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OH-D3), and vitamin D2 (vitD2). However, the bioactivity of the different species has not been scientifically established. The hypothesis in this study was that vitD3, 25OH-D3, and vitD2 have an equal effect
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Dietary intake of vitamin D includes vitamin D3 (vitD3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OH-D3), and vitamin D2 (vitD2). However, the bioactivity of the different species has not been scientifically established. The hypothesis in this study was that vitD3, 25OH-D3, and vitD2 have an equal effect on 25-hydroxyvitamin D in serum (vitamin D status). To test our hypothesis, we performed a randomized, crossover study. Twelve young males consumed 10 µg/day vitD3 during a four-week run-in period, followed by 3 × 6 weeks of 10 µg/day vitD3, 10 µg/day 25OH-D3, and 10 µg/day vitD2. The content of vitD3, vitD2, 25OH-D3, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OH-D2) in serum was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The hypothesis that the three sources of vitamin D affect vitamin D status equally was rejected. Based on the assumption that 1 µg vitD3/day will show an increase in vitamin D status of 1.96 nmol/L, the results showed that 23 µg vitD2 and 6.8 µg 25OH-D3 was similar to 10 µg vitD3. These results demonstrate that further investigations are necessary to determine how to quantify the total vitamin D activity based on chemical quantification of the individual vitamin D metabolites to replace the total vitamin D activity assessed in biological rat models. Full article
Open AccessArticle Long-Term Administration of Queen Bee Acid (QBA) to Rodents Reduces Anxiety-Like Behavior, Promotes Neuronal Health and Improves Body Composition
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 13; doi:10.3390/nu10010013
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
Background: Queen bee acid (QBA; 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid) is the predominant fatty acid in royal jelly (RJ) and has activity at estrogen receptors, which affect brain function and body composition. However, few, long-term studies have assessed QBA effects in brain health and body composition.
[...] Read more.
Background: Queen bee acid (QBA; 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid) is the predominant fatty acid in royal jelly (RJ) and has activity at estrogen receptors, which affect brain function and body composition. However, few, long-term studies have assessed QBA effects in brain health and body composition. Methods: Primary hippocampal neurons were treated with QBA (0–30 µM) and challenged with glutamate or hypoxia. QBA was fed to aged, male Sprague-Dawley rats (12–24 mg/kg/day) and to adult male and female Balb/C mice (30–60 mg/kg/day) for ≥3.5 months. Rats were evaluated in a behavioral test battery of brain function. Mice were measured for fat and muscle composition, as well as bone density. Results: QBA increased neuron growth and protected against glutamate challenge and hypoxia challenge. Rats receiving QBA had reduced anxiety-like behavior, increased body weight, and better maintenance of body weight with age. Mice receiving QBA exhibited increased body weight, muscle mass, and adiposity in males, and increased bone density, but decreased adiposity, in females. Conclusions: QBA is an active component of RJ that promotes the growth and protection of neurons, reduces anxiety-like phenotypes, and benefits bone, muscle and adipose tissues in a sex-dependent manner, which further implicates estrogen receptors in the effects of QBA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Physiological Translocation of Lactic Acid Bacteria during Pregnancy Contributes to the Composition of the Milk Microbiota in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 14; doi:10.3390/nu10010014
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
The human milk microbiota is a complex and diverse ecosystem that seems to play a relevant role in the mother-to-infant transmission of microorganisms during early life. Bacteria present in human milk may arise from different sources, and recent studies suggest that at least
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The human milk microbiota is a complex and diverse ecosystem that seems to play a relevant role in the mother-to-infant transmission of microorganisms during early life. Bacteria present in human milk may arise from different sources, and recent studies suggest that at least some of them may be originally present in the maternal digestive tract and may reach the mammary gland through an endogenous route during pregnancy and lactation. The objective of this work was to elucidate whether some lactic acid bacteria are able to translocate and colonize the mammary gland and milk. For this purpose, two lactic acid bacteria strains (Lactococcus lactis MG1614 and Lactobacillus salivarius PS2) were transformed with a plasmid containing the lux genes; subsequently, the transformed strains were orally administered to pregnant mice. The murine model allowed the visualization, isolation, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-detection of the transformed bacteria in different body locations, including mammary tissue and milk, reinforcing the hypothesis that physiological translocation of maternal bacteria during pregnancy and lactation may contribute to the composition of the mammary and milk microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Impact of Consuming Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts within a Mediterranean Diet on DNA Methylation in Peripheral White Blood Cells within the PREDIMED-Navarra Randomized Controlled Trial: A Role for Dietary Lipids
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 15; doi:10.3390/nu10010015
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
DNA methylation could be reversible and mouldable by environmental factors, such as dietary exposures. The objective was to analyse whether an intervention with two Mediterranean diets, one rich in extra-virgin olive oil (MedDiet + EVOO) and the other one in nuts (MedDiet +
[...] Read more.
DNA methylation could be reversible and mouldable by environmental factors, such as dietary exposures. The objective was to analyse whether an intervention with two Mediterranean diets, one rich in extra-virgin olive oil (MedDiet + EVOO) and the other one in nuts (MedDiet + nuts), was influencing the methylation status of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) genes. A subset of 36 representative individuals were selected within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED-Navarra) trial, with three intervention groups in high cardiovascular risk volunteers: MedDiet + EVOO, MedDiet + nuts, and a low-fat control group. Methylation was assessed at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed routes with differentially methylated CpG sites (CpGs) related to intermediate metabolism, diabetes, inflammation, and signal transduction. Two CpGs were specifically selected: cg01081346–CPT1B/CHKB-CPT1B and cg17071192–GNAS/GNASAS, being associated with intermediate metabolism. Furthermore, cg01081346 was associated with PUFAs intake, showing a role for specific fatty acids on epigenetic modulation. Specific components of MedDiet, particularly nuts and EVOO, were able to induce methylation changes in several PWBCs genes. These changes may have potential benefits in health; especially those changes in genes related to intermediate metabolism, diabetes, inflammation and signal transduction, which may contribute to explain the role of MedDiet and fat quality on health outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Sleeve Gastrectomy vs. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Eating Behavior and Sweet Taste Perception in Subjects with Obesity
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 18; doi:10.3390/nu10010018
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
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Abstract
The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has greater effects on taste perception and eating behavior than comparable weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy (SG). We evaluated the following outcomes in
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The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has greater effects on taste perception and eating behavior than comparable weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy (SG). We evaluated the following outcomes in 31 subjects both before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 23) or SG (n = 8): (1) sweet, savory, and salty taste sensitivity; (2) the most preferred concentrations of sucrose and monosodium glutamate; (3) sweetness palatability, by using validated sensory testing techniques; and (4) eating behavior, by using the Food Craving Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. We found that neither RYGB nor SG affected sweetness or saltiness sensitivity. However, weight loss induced by either RYGB or SG caused the same decrease in: (1) frequency of cravings for foods; (2) influence of emotions and external food cues on eating behavior; and (3) shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (all p-values ≤ 0.01). Therefore, when matched on weight loss, SG and RYGB cause the same beneficial effects on key factors involved in the regulation of eating behavior and hedonic component of taste perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bariatric Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle Small Intestinal Absorption of Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and Accumulation of the Sulfur Moiety in Selected Tissues of Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 19; doi:10.3390/nu10010019
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
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Abstract
The principal dietary sources of sulfur, the amino acids methionine and cysteine, may not always be consumed in adequate amounts to meet sulfur requirements. The naturally occurring organosulfur compound, methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), is available as a dietary supplement and has been associated with multiple
[...] Read more.
The principal dietary sources of sulfur, the amino acids methionine and cysteine, may not always be consumed in adequate amounts to meet sulfur requirements. The naturally occurring organosulfur compound, methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), is available as a dietary supplement and has been associated with multiple health benefits. Absorption of MSM by the small intestine and accumulation of the associated sulfur moiety in selected tissues with chronic (8 days) administration were evaluated using juvenile male mice. Intestinal absorption was not saturated at 50 mmol, appeared passive and carrier-independent, with a high capacity (at least 2 g/d-mouse). The 35S associated with MSM did not increase in serum or tissue homogenates between days 2 and 8, indicating a stable equilibrium between intake and elimination was established. In contrast, proteins isolated from the preparations using gel electrophoresis revealed increasing incorporation of 35S in the protein fraction of serum, cellular elements of blood, liver, and small intestine but not skeletal muscle. The potential contributions of protein synthesis using labeled sulfur amino acids synthesized by the gut bacteria and posttranslational sulfation of proteins by incorporation of the labeled sulfate of MSM in 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS) and subsequent transfer by sulfotransferases are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Leonurus japonicus Houtt Attenuates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Free Fatty Acid-Induced HepG2 Cells and Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 20; doi:10.3390/nu10010020
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
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Abstract
We investigated the effects of a Leonurus japonicus ethanol extract (LJE) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). An in vitro model of hepatic steatosis was treated with 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) in HepG2 cells. An in vivo NAFLD model was established
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We investigated the effects of a Leonurus japonicus ethanol extract (LJE) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). An in vitro model of hepatic steatosis was treated with 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) in HepG2 cells. An in vivo NAFLD model was established using C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and administered LJE (100 or 200 mg/kg) orally for 14 weeks. LJE treatment suppressed lipid accumulation and intracellular triglyceride levels significantly in a concentration-dependent manner in HepG2 cells. Moreover, LJE significantly reduced the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1-c, and its downstream genes, which are associated with lipogenesis, in HepG2 cells. In HFD-fed mice, LJE treatment decreased body weight significantly and decreased serum alanine transaminase levels to normal values, concurrent with a decrease in hepatic lipid accumulation. Furthermore, LJE supplementation ameliorated insulin sensitivity by decreasing serum glucose and insulin levels. LJE improved hepatic steatosis by increasing the expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in HFD-fed mice and FFA-treated HepG2 cells. The results suggested that LJE might be a potential therapeutic agent to treat NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Plant-Based Beverages as Good Sources of Free and Glycosidic Plant Sterols
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 21; doi:10.3390/nu10010021
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
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Abstract
To address the ever-growing group of health-conscious consumers, more and more nutritional and health claims are being used on food products. Nevertheless, only very few food constituents, including plant sterols, have been appointed an approved health claim (European Commission and Food and Drugs
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To address the ever-growing group of health-conscious consumers, more and more nutritional and health claims are being used on food products. Nevertheless, only very few food constituents, including plant sterols, have been appointed an approved health claim (European Commission and Food and Drugs Administration). Plant sterols are part of those limited lists of approved compounds for their cholesterol-lowering properties but have been praised for their anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties as well. Despite this indisputable reputation, direct quantitative data is still lacking for naturally present (conjugated) plant sterols in beverages. This study aimed to fill this gap by applying a validated extraction and UPLC-MS/MS detection method to a diverse range of everyday plant-based beverages. β-sitosterol-β-d-glucoside (BSSG) showed to be by far the most abundant sterol in all beverages studied, with concentrations up to 60–90 mg per 100 mL in plant-based milk alternatives and fresh fruit juices. Ergosterol (provitamin D2) could be found in beers (0.8–6.1 µg per 100 mL, from the yeast) and occasionally in juices (17–29 µg per 100 mL). Overall, the results demonstrated that the concentrations of water-soluble sterol conjugates have been underestimated significantly and that specific plant-based beverages can be good, low-fat sources of these plant sterols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle Characterisation of L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1) Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle by Immunofluorescent Microscopy
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 23; doi:10.3390/nu10010023
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
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Abstract
The branch chain amino acid leucine is a potent stimulator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Leucine rapidly enters the cell via the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1); however, little is known regarding the localisation and distribution of this transporter in human
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The branch chain amino acid leucine is a potent stimulator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Leucine rapidly enters the cell via the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1); however, little is known regarding the localisation and distribution of this transporter in human skeletal muscle. Therefore, we applied immunofluorescence staining approaches to visualise LAT1 in wild type (WT) and LAT1 muscle-specific knockout (mKO) mice, in addition to basal human skeletal muscle samples. LAT1 positive staining was visually greater in WT muscles compared to mKO muscle. In human skeletal muscle, positive LAT1 staining was noted close to the sarcolemmal membrane (dystrophin positive staining), with a greater staining intensity for LAT1 observed in the sarcoplasmic regions of type II fibres (those not stained positively for myosin heavy-chain 1, Type II—25.07 ± 5.93, Type I—13.71 ± 1.98, p < 0.01), suggesting a greater abundance of this protein in these fibres. Finally, we observed association with LAT1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), suggesting LAT1 association close to the microvasculature. This is the first study to visualise the distribution and localisation of LAT1 in human skeletal muscle. As such, this approach provides a validated experimental platform to study the role and regulation of LAT1 in human skeletal muscle in response to various physiological and pathophysiological models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Dairy Products Intake and Endometrial Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 25; doi:10.3390/nu10010025
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
Observational studies have suggested inconsistent findings on the relationship between dairy products intake and endometrial cancer risk. This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate this correlation; moreover, databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Embase were screened for relevant studies
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Observational studies have suggested inconsistent findings on the relationship between dairy products intake and endometrial cancer risk. This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate this correlation; moreover, databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Embase were screened for relevant studies up to 26 February 2017. The inverse variance weighting method and random effects models were used to calculate the overall OR (odds ratio) values and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 2 cohort study and 16 case-control studies were included in the current analysis. No significant association was observed between endometrial cancer risk and the intake of total dairy products, milk, or cheese for the highest versus the lowest exposure category (total dairy products (14 studies): OR 1.04, 95% CI: 0.97–1.11, I2 = 73%, p = 0.000; milk (6 studies): 0.99, 95% CI: 0.89–1.10, I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.43; cheese (5 studies): 0.89, 95% CI: 0.76–1.05, I2 = 39%, p = 0.16). The only cohort study with a total of 456,513 participants reported a positive association of butter intake with endometrial cancer risk (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.03–1.26, I2 = 2.6%, p = 0.31). There was a significant negative association of dairy products intake and endometrial cancer risk among women with a higher body mass index (BMI) (5 studies, OR 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.96, I2 = 75.8%, p = 0.002). Stratifying the analyses by risk factors including BMI should be taken into account when exploring the association of dairy products intake with endometrial cancer risk. Further well-designed studies are needed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tongue Abnormalities Are Associated to a Maternal Folic Acid Deficient Diet in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 26; doi:10.3390/nu10010026
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 25 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
It is widely accepted that maternal folic acid (FA) deficiency during pregnancy is a risk factor for abnormal development. The tongue, with multiple genes working together in a coordinated cascade in time and place, has emerged as a target organ for testing the
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It is widely accepted that maternal folic acid (FA) deficiency during pregnancy is a risk factor for abnormal development. The tongue, with multiple genes working together in a coordinated cascade in time and place, has emerged as a target organ for testing the effect of FA during development. A FA-deficient (FAD) diet was administered to eight-week-old C57/BL/6J mouse females for 2–16 weeks. Pregnant dams were sacrificed at gestational day 17 (E17). The tongues and heads of 15 control and 210 experimental fetuses were studied. In the tongues, the maximum width, base width, height and area were compared with width, height and area of the head. All measurements decreased from 10% to 38% with increasing number of weeks on maternal FAD diet. Decreased head and tongue areas showed a harmonic reduction (Spearman nonparametric correlation, Rho = 0.802) with respect to weeks on a maternal FAD diet. Tongue congenital abnormalities showed a 10.9% prevalence, divided in aglossia (3.3%) and microglossia (7.6%), always accompanied by agnathia (5.6%) or micrognathia (5.2%). This is the first time that tongue alterations have been related experimentally to maternal FAD diet in mice. We propose that the tongue should be included in the list of FA-sensitive birth defect organs due to its relevance in several key food and nutrition processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool for Hospitalized Patients with Diabetes: Cost, Accuracy, and User Satisfaction Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 27; doi:10.3390/nu10010027
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
Although nutritional screening and dietary monitoring in clinical settings are important, studies on related user satisfaction and cost benefit are still lacking. This study aimed to: (1) elucidate the cost of implementing a newly developed dietary monitoring tool, the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool
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Although nutritional screening and dietary monitoring in clinical settings are important, studies on related user satisfaction and cost benefit are still lacking. This study aimed to: (1) elucidate the cost of implementing a newly developed dietary monitoring tool, the Pictorial Dietary Assessment Tool (PDAT); and (2) investigate the accuracy of estimation and satisfaction of healthcare staff after the use of the PDAT. A cross-over intervention study was conducted among 132 hospitalized patients with diabetes. Cost and time for the implementation of PDAT in comparison to modified Comstock was estimated using the activity-based costing approach. Accuracy was expressed as the percentages of energy and protein obtained by both methods, which were within 15% and 30%, respectively, of those obtained by the food weighing. Satisfaction of healthcare staff was measured using a standardized questionnaire. Time to complete the food intake recording of patients using PDAT (2.31 ± 0.70 min) was shorter than when modified Comstock (3.53 ± 1.27 min) was used (p < 0.001). Overall cost per patient was slightly higher for PDAT (United States Dollar 0.27 ± 0.02) than for modified Comstock (USD 0.26 ± 0.04 (p < 0.05)). The accuracy of energy intake estimated by modified Comstock was 10% lower than that of PDAT. There was poorer accuracy of protein intake estimated by modified Comstock (<40%) compared to that estimated by the PDAT (>71%) (p < 0.05). Mean user satisfaction of healthcare staff was significantly higher for PDAT than that for modified Comstock (p < 0.05). PDAT requires a shorter time to be completed and was rated better than modified Comstock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Curcumin–Cu(II) and –Zn(II) Complexes Systems and Their Pharmacological Implications
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 28; doi:10.3390/nu10010028
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the main form of dementia and has a steadily increasing prevalence. As both oxidative stress and metal homeostasis are involved in the pathogenesis of AD, it would be interesting to develop a dual function agent, targeting the two factors.
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the main form of dementia and has a steadily increasing prevalence. As both oxidative stress and metal homeostasis are involved in the pathogenesis of AD, it would be interesting to develop a dual function agent, targeting the two factors. Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is an antioxidant and can also chelate metal ions. Whether the complexes of curcumin with metal ions possess neuroprotective effects has not been evaluated. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the complexes of curcumin with Cu(II) or Zn(II) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The use of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, a widely used neuronal cell model system, was adopted. It was revealed that curcumin–Cu(II) complexes systems possessed enhanced O2·–-scavenging activities compared to unchelated curcumin. In comparison with unchelated curcumin, the protective effects of curcumin–Cu(II) complexes systems were stronger than curcumin–Zn(II) system. Curcumin–Cu(II) or –Zn(II) complexes systems significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and attenuated the increase of malondialdehyde levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, in a dose-dependent manner. The curcumin–Cu(II) complex system with a 2:1 ratio exhibited the most significant effect. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that curcumin–Cu(II) or –Zn(II) complexes systems inhibited cell apoptosis via downregulating the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway and upregulating Bcl-2/Bax pathway. In summary, the present study found that curcumin–Cu(II) or –Zn(II) complexes systems, especially the former, possess significant neuroprotective effects, which indicates the potential advantage of curcumin as a promising agent against AD and deserves further study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel Nutrition Profiling of New Zealanders’ Varied Eating Patterns
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 30; doi:10.3390/nu10010030
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 31 December 2017
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Abstract
There is increasing recognition that the relationship between nutrition and health is influenced by complex eating behaviors. The aims of this study were to develop novel nutrition profiles of New Zealanders and to describe the prevalence of these profiles. Observational, cross-sectional data from
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There is increasing recognition that the relationship between nutrition and health is influenced by complex eating behaviors. The aims of this study were to develop novel nutrition profiles of New Zealanders and to describe the prevalence of these profiles. Observational, cross-sectional data from the Sovereign Wellbeing Index, 2014 was used to develop the profiles in an a-priori process. Descriptive prevalence for the total data (N = 10,012; 4797 males; 18+ years) and profiles were reported. Nutrition question responses were presented as: Includers (consumed few time a week or more), Avoiders (few time a month) and Limiters (not eaten). Fruit or non-starchy vegetables were Included (fruit: 83.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 82.7, 84.1); vegetables: 82.6% (81.8, 83.4)) by the majority of the sample. Also Included were confectionary (48.6% 95% CI (47.6, 49.6)) and full sugar drinks (34.3% (33.4, 35.2)). The derived nutrition profiles were: Junk Food (22.4% 95% CI (21.6, 23.3)), Moderator (43.0% (42.1, 44.0)), High-Carbohydrate (23.0% (22.2, 23.8)), Mediterranean (11.1% (10.5, 11.8)), Flexitarian (8.8% (8.2, 9.4)), and Low-Carbohydrate (5.4% (4.9, 5.8)). This study suggests that New Zealanders follow a number of different healthful eating patterns. Future work should consider how these alternate eating patterns impact on public health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Concentrations of Plasma Free Palmitoleic and Dihomo-Gamma Linoleic Fatty Acids Are Higher in Children with Abdominal Obesity
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 31; doi:10.3390/nu10010031
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
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Abstract
Increased plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (AO). However, this association remains controversial in children. This study analyzed plasma FFA concentration in children with and without AO. Twenty-nine children classified with AO were
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Increased plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (AO). However, this association remains controversial in children. This study analyzed plasma FFA concentration in children with and without AO. Twenty-nine children classified with AO were matched by age and sex with 29 non-obese individuals. Blood samples were collected after fasting for 10–12 h. Plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined by automatized methods. FFAs were analyzed by gas chromatography. Children with and without AO had similar age (7.1 ± 2.6 vs. 7.2 ± 2.7 years; p > 0.05) but obese children showed higher (p < 0.05) body mass index (BMI) (+4.3 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (+5.1 mmHg), and insulin (+27.8 pmol/L). There were no significant differences in plasma total FFA concentration between groups (1.02 ± 0.61 vs. 0.89 ± 0.37 mmol/L; p > 0.05). However, children with AO had higher palmitoleic acid (0.94 vs. 0.70 wt %; p < 0.05) and dihomo-gamma linoleic acid (DHGL) (2.76 vs. 2.07 wt %; p < 0.05). Palmitoleic and DHGL acids correlated (p < 0.05) with BMI (r = 0.397; r = 0.296, respectively) and with waist circumference (r = 0.380; r = 0.276, respectively). Palmitoleic acid correlated positively with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.386; p < 0.05) and negatively with HDL-C (−0.572; p < 0.01). In summary, children with AO have higher plasmatic concentrations of free palmitoleic and DHGL fatty acids, which correlate with cardiometabolic risk factors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Do Nutrient-Based Front-of-Pack Labelling Schemes Support or Undermine Food-Based Dietary Guideline Recommendations? Lessons from the Australian Health Star Rating System
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 32; doi:10.3390/nu10010032
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
Food-based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) promote healthy dietary patterns. Nutrient-based Front-of-Pack Labelling (NBFOPL) schemes rate the ‘healthiness’ of individual foods. This study aimed to investigate whether the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system aligns with the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs). The Mintel Global New
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Food-based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) promote healthy dietary patterns. Nutrient-based Front-of-Pack Labelling (NBFOPL) schemes rate the ‘healthiness’ of individual foods. This study aimed to investigate whether the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system aligns with the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs). The Mintel Global New Products Database was searched for every new food product displaying a HSR entering the Australian marketplace from 27 June 2014 (HSR system endorsement) until 30 June 2017. Foods were categorised as either a five food group (FFG) food or ‘discretionary’ food in accordance with ADG recommendations. Ten percent (1269/12,108) of new food products displayed a HSR, of which 57% were FFG foods. The median number of ‘health’ stars displayed on discretionary foods (2.5; range: 0.5–5) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than FFG foods (4.0; range: 0.5–5), although a high frequency of anomalies and overlap in the number of stars across the two food categories was observed, with 56.7% of discretionary foods displaying ≥2.5 stars. The HSR system is undermining the ADG recommendations through facilitating the marketing of discretionary foods. Adjusting the HSR’s algorithm might correct certain technical flaws. However, supporting the ADGs requires reform of the HSR’s design to demarcate the food source (FFG versus discretionary food) of a nutrient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Healthcare Expenditure and Productivity Cost Savings from Reductions in Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Associated with Increased Intake of Cereal Fibre among Australian Adults: A Cost of Illness Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 34; doi:10.3390/nu10010034
Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
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Abstract
An ageing population and growing prevalence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are putting increased pressure on healthcare expenditure in Australia. A cost of illness analysis was conducted to assess the potential savings in healthcare expenditure and
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An ageing population and growing prevalence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are putting increased pressure on healthcare expenditure in Australia. A cost of illness analysis was conducted to assess the potential savings in healthcare expenditure and productivity costs associated with lower prevalence of CVD and T2D resulting from increased intake of cereal fibre. Modelling was undertaken for three levels of increased dietary fibre intake using cereal fibre: a 10% increase in total dietary fibre; an increase to the Adequate Intake; and an increase to the Suggested Dietary Target. Total healthcare expenditure and productivity cost savings associated with reduced CVD and T2D were calculated by gender, socioeconomic status, baseline dietary fibre intake, and population uptake. Total combined annual healthcare expenditure and productivity cost savings of AUD$17.8 million–$1.6 billion for CVD and AUD$18.2 million–$1.7 billion for T2D were calculated. Total savings were generally larger among adults of lower socioeconomic status and those with lower dietary fibre intakes. Given the substantial healthcare expenditure and productivity cost savings that could be realised through increases in cereal fibre, there is cause for the development of interventions and policies that encourage an increase in cereal fibre intake in Australia. Full article
Open AccessArticle Associations of Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations with Lung Function, Airway Inflammation and Common Cold in the General Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 35; doi:10.3390/nu10010035
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
Vitamin D is hypothesized to have a beneficial effect on lung function and respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with lung function, airway inflammation and common colds. We performed a cross-sectional
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Vitamin D is hypothesized to have a beneficial effect on lung function and respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with lung function, airway inflammation and common colds. We performed a cross-sectional analysis in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, a population-based cohort study. We included participants with measurements of serum 25(OH)D, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO), and data on self-reported common colds (n = 6138). In crude associations, serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with FEV1 and FVC, and negatively with FeNO and the occurrence of a common cold. After adjustment for confounders, however, these associations disappeared. Stratified analyses showed that Body Mass Index (BMI) was an effect modifier in the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and FEV1, FVC and FeNO. In obese participants (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D was associated with 0.46% predicted higher FEV1 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.17 to 0.75), 0.46% predicted higher FVC (0.18 to 0.74), and 0.24 ppb lower FeNO (−0.43 to −0.04). Thus, in the total study population, 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with lung function, airway inflammation and common colds. In obese participants, however, higher 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a better lung function and lower airway inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Metabolic Responses to Carbohydrate Ingestion during Exercise: Associations between Carbohydrate Dose and Endurance Performance
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 37; doi:10.3390/nu10010037
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 25 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during exercise lasting less than three hours improves endurance exercise performance but there is still debate about the optimal dose. We utilised stable isotopes and blood metabolite profiles to further examine metabolic responses to CHO (glucose only) ingestion in the
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Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during exercise lasting less than three hours improves endurance exercise performance but there is still debate about the optimal dose. We utilised stable isotopes and blood metabolite profiles to further examine metabolic responses to CHO (glucose only) ingestion in the 20–64 g·h−1 range, and to determine the association with performance outcome. In a double-blind, randomized cross-over design, male cyclists (n = 20, mean ± SD, age 34 ± 10 years, mass 75.8 ± 9 kg, peak power output 394 ± 36 W, VO2max 62 ± 9 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed four main experimental trials. Each trial involved a two-hour constant load ride (185 ± 25 W) followed by a time trial, where one of three CHO beverages, or a control (water), were administered every 15 min, providing 0, 20, 39 or 64 g CHO·h−1. Dual glucose tracer techniques, indirect calorimetry and blood analyses were used to determine glucose kinetics, exogenous CHO oxidation (EXO), endogenous CHO and fat oxidation; and metabolite responses. Regression analysis revealed that total exogenous CHO oxidised in the second hour of exercise, and suppression of serum NEFA concentration provided the best prediction model of performance outcome. However, the model could only explain ~19% of the variance in performance outcome. The present data demonstrate that consuming ~40 g·h−1 of CHO appears to be the minimum ingestion rate required to induce metabolic effects that are sufficient to impact upon performance outcome. These data highlight a lack of performance benefit and few changes in metabolic outcomes beyond an ingestion rate of 39 g·h−1. Further work is required to explore dose-response effects of CHO feeding and associations between multiple metabolic parameters and subsequent performance outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Prospective Study of Dietary Zinc Intake and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 38; doi:10.3390/nu10010038
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
Several animal and human studies have shown that zinc is associated with cellular damage and cardiac dysfunction. This study aims to investigate dietary zinc and the zinc-iron ratio, as predictors of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large longitudinal study of mid-age Australian
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Several animal and human studies have shown that zinc is associated with cellular damage and cardiac dysfunction. This study aims to investigate dietary zinc and the zinc-iron ratio, as predictors of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large longitudinal study of mid-age Australian women (aged 50–61 years). Data was self-reported and validated food frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary intake. Energy-adjusted zinc was ranked using quintiles and predictors of incident CVD were examined using stepwise logistic regression. After six years of follow-up, 320 incident CVD cases were established. A positive association between dietary zinc intake, zinc-iron ratio and risk of CVD was observed even after adjusting for potential dietary and non-dietary confounders. Compared to those with the lowest quintile of zinc, those in the highest quintile (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.67, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.08–2.62) and zinc-iron ratio (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.05–2.81) had almost twice the odds of developing CVD (p trend = 0.007). This study shows that high dietary zinc intake and zinc-iron ratio is associated with a greater incidence of CVD in women. Further studies are required detailing the source of zinc and iron in diet and their precise roles when compared to other essential nutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Possible Mechanisms of the Prevention of Doxorubicin Toxicity by Cichoric Acid—Antioxidant Nutrient
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 44; doi:10.3390/nu10010044
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
Skin is the largest organ in the human body, and which protects organism against unfavorable external factors e.g., chemicals, environment pollutants, allergens, microorganisms, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining general homeostasis. It is also an important target of oxidative stress due
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Skin is the largest organ in the human body, and which protects organism against unfavorable external factors e.g., chemicals, environment pollutants, allergens, microorganisms, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining general homeostasis. It is also an important target of oxidative stress due to the activity of oxygen reactive species (ROS), which are constantly generated in the fibroblasts in response to exogenous or endogenous prooxidant agents. An example of such compound with proved prooxidant activity is Doxorubicin (DOX), which is an effective anticancer agent belongs in anthracycline antibiotic group. Increasingly frequent implementation of various strategies to reduce undesirable DOX side effects was observed. Very promising results come from the combination of DOX with dietary antioxidants from the polyphenol group of compounds, such as cichoric acid (CA) in order to lower oxidative stress level. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of CA combined with DOX on the oxidative stress parameters in fibroblasts, which constitute the main cells in human skin. We also wanted to examine anti-apoptotic activity of CA in fibroblasts treated with selected concentrations of DOX. Results obtained from the combination of DOX with CA revealed that CA exhibits cytoprotective activity against DOX-induced damage by lowering oxidative stress level and by inhibiting apoptosis. The present finding may indicate that CA may serve as antioxidative and anti-apoptotic agent, active against DOX-induced damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and the Skin: Roles in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 45; doi:10.3390/nu10010045
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC). A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term
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Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC). A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20) and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound skinfolds (US; infants only) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (infants and mothers). 24-h milk intake (MI) and feeding frequency (FFQ) were measured. Higher FFQ was associated with larger 24-h MI (p ≤ 0.003). Higher 24-h MI was associated with larger infant fat mass (FM) (US: p ≤ 0.002), greater percentage FM (US: p ≤ 0.008), greater FM index (FMI) (US: p ≤ 0.001) and lower fat-free mass index (FFMI) (US: p = 0.015). Lower FFQ was associated with both larger FFM (US: p ≤ 0.001) and FFMI (US: p < 0.001). Greater maternal adiposity was associated with smaller infant FFM measured with US (BMI: p < 0.010; %FM: p = 0.004; FMI: p < 0.011). Maternal BC was not associated with FFQ or 24-h MI. These results reinforce that early life is a critical window for infant programming and that breastfeeding may influence risk of later disease via modulation of BC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
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Open AccessArticle Desphospho-Uncarboxylated Matrix-Gla Protein Is Increased Postoperatively in Cardiovascular Risk Patients
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 46; doi:10.3390/nu10010046
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
Background: Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is an extrahepatic protein that is dependent on glutamate carboxylation, a vitamin K-dependent process. Its dysfunctional form, desphospho-uncarboxylated-MGP, has been associated with increased arterial calcification and stiffness. The aim of this study was to measure the degree of
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Background: Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is an extrahepatic protein that is dependent on glutamate carboxylation, a vitamin K-dependent process. Its dysfunctional form, desphospho-uncarboxylated-MGP, has been associated with increased arterial calcification and stiffness. The aim of this study was to measure the degree of postoperative carboxylation of MGP and two other Gla proteins in patients scheduled for abdominal or orthopaedic surgery. Methods: Forty patients undergoing abdominal or orthopaedic surgery were included. Blood samples were collected preoperatively and four days after the surgery. Desphospho-carboxylated MGP (dp-cMGP), desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), carboxylated osteocalcin (OC) (cOC), uncarboxylated OC (ucOC), and uncarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II) were analysed. Results: Preoperatively, 29 patients had dp-ucMGP levels above the reference values. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities had higher dp-ucMGP preoperatively compared with patients with no record of cardiovascular disease. Postoperatively, this number increased to 36 patients, and median dp-ucMGP levels increased (p < 0.0001) and correlated to a PIVKA-II increase (r = 0.44). On the other hand, dp-cMGP levels did not significantly alter. Decreased levels of ucOC and cOC were seen after surgery (p = 0.017 and p = 0.0033, respectively). Comorbidities, possible nutritional defects, and complications affecting Gla protein activity and function were identified. Conclusions. Dp-ucMGP was high preoperatively, and had further increased postoperatively. This pattern was linked to several comorbidities, possible nutritional defects, and postoperative complications, which motivates further research about potential interactions between perioperative corrective treatments with vitamin K supplements, cardiovascular biomarkers, and incidents of stroke and myocardial infarction events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin K in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Breastfeeding Determinants in Healthy Term Newborns
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 48; doi:10.3390/nu10010048
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
Breastfeeding is the normative standard for infant feeding. Despite its established benefits, different factors can affect breastfeeding rates over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate breastfeeding determinants in healthy term newborns during the first three months of life. A prospective,
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Breastfeeding is the normative standard for infant feeding. Despite its established benefits, different factors can affect breastfeeding rates over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate breastfeeding determinants in healthy term newborns during the first three months of life. A prospective, observational, single-center study was conducted in the nursery of Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan, Italy. The mother-baby dyads that were admitted to the Clinic in January and February 2017 were enrolled. Only healthy term babies with birth weight ≥10th percentile for gestational age were included. Data were collected through medical records and questionnaires administered during the follow-up period. Then, we fitted univariate and multivariate logistic models and calculated odds ratios. 746 dyads were included but 640 completed the study. The factors found to be favoring breastfeeding were a previous successful breastfeeding experience, a higher level of education of the mother, attending prenatal classes, no use of pacifier, rooming in practice, and breastfeeding on demand. Factors acting negatively on breastfeeding were advanced maternal age, non-spontaneous delivery, perception of low milk supply, mastitis, and nipple fissures. This study highlights the need to individualize the assistance provide to breastfeeding mothers, paying special attention to personal experiences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Diet-Quality Scores, Adiposity, Total Cholesterol and Markers of Nutritional Status in European Adults: Findings from the Food4Me Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 49; doi:10.3390/nu10010049
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 6 January 2018
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Abstract
Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI;
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Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use among Korean Adults: Baseline Data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in Yeungnam Area
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 50; doi:10.3390/nu10010050
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 6 January 2018
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Abstract
Although dietary supplement use is believed to improve health status, the efficacy and safety of its use remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS) to the total micronutrient intake. Study participants (n
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Although dietary supplement use is believed to improve health status, the efficacy and safety of its use remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS) to the total micronutrient intake. Study participants (n = 586) were selected from the ongoing prospective cohort study of the Korean population, and baseline information on current use of dietary supplements, types of supplements, frequency of use, dosage, duration, and brand name was collected. Dietary information was assessed using a 146-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Approximately one-fourth of the participants were categorized as VMS users. The proportion of VMS use was significantly higher in women (p = 0.02), older participants (p = 0.002), and those with a higher income level (p = 0.03) than in non-users. All vitamin and mineral intakes of both groups met the recommended nutrient intake levels by food consumption alone, except for riboflavin, calcium, and magnesium. Approximately 0.7–3.4% of the VMS users had nutrient intake levels that exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin A, E, C, iron, and iodine. Excessive use of VMS can lead to an increased risk for adverse health effects. The results of this study provide useful baseline data for establishing guidelines for the appropriate consumption and adequate intake levels of VMS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gelidium elegans Extract Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes via Regulation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt Signaling
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 51; doi:10.3390/nu10010051
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 6 January 2018
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Abstract
Gelidium elegans, a red alga native to the Asia Pacific region, contains biologically active polyphenols. We conducted a molecular biological study of the anti-diabetic effect of Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Mice that had been administered GEE had significantly lower
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Gelidium elegans, a red alga native to the Asia Pacific region, contains biologically active polyphenols. We conducted a molecular biological study of the anti-diabetic effect of Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Mice that had been administered GEE had significantly lower body mass, water consumption, and fasting blood glucose than db/db controls. Moreover, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), an indicator of the glycemic status of people with diabetes, was significantly lower in mice that had been administered GEE. We also found that 200 mg/kg/day GEE upregulates the insulin signaling pathway by activating insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and increasing the expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4). In parallel, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity was lower in GEE-treated groups. In summary, these findings indicate that GEE regulates glucose metabolism by activating the insulin signaling pathway and downregulating the MAPK signaling pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps in Knowledge of Bean Health Benefits
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 52; doi:10.3390/nu10010052
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
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Abstract
Registered Dietitians (RDs) promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) have been demonstrated, there is limited research on
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Registered Dietitians (RDs) promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans. The RDs largely held positive attitudes toward the healthfulness of beans and were aware of many health benefits. Some gaps in awareness were evident, including effect on cancer risk, intestinal health benefits, folate content, and application with celiac disease patients. RDs with greater personal bean consumption had significantly higher bean health benefit knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of the RDs did not know the meaning of ‘legume’, and over two-thirds could not define the term ‘pulse’. It is essential that RDs have up-to-date, evidence-based information regarding bean benefits to provide appropriate education to patients, clients, and the public. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Dietary Pattern and Incidence of Cholesterolemia in Korean Adults: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 53; doi:10.3390/nu10010053
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
We examined the gender-specific association between dietary pattern and risk of developing cholesterolemia based on the data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology study. A total of 7515 individuals aged 40–69 years participated in this study between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was
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We examined the gender-specific association between dietary pattern and risk of developing cholesterolemia based on the data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology study. A total of 7515 individuals aged 40–69 years participated in this study between 2005 and 2010. Dietary intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Low HDL cholesterolemia was defined as a plasma HDL-C level <1.04 mmol/L (men) or <1.30 mmol/L (women), and high LDL cholesterolemia was defined as a plasma LDL-C level >3.37 mmol/L. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the risk for incident cholesterolemia according to dietary pattern score. Four dietary patterns were derived by gender using factor analysis: prudent pattern; coffee, fat, and sweet pattern; whole grain (men) or white rice and noodle (women) pattern; and westernized pattern. A prudent pattern was inversely associated with risk of low HDL cholesterolemia in both men (Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76, p for trend = 0.0098) and women (HR = 0.78, p for trend = 0.0324), whereas the coffee, fat, and sweet pattern was positively associated with risk of high LDL cholesterolemia in men only (HR = 1.26, p for trend = 0.0254) after adjustment for potential confounders. Specific dietary patterns were associated with risk of developing cholesterolemia suggesting gender differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Higher Protein Intake Is Not Associated with Decreased Kidney Function in Pre-Diabetic Older Adults Following a One-Year Intervention—A Preview Sub-Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 54; doi:10.3390/nu10010054
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein
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Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein on kidney function in pre-diabetic men and women, aged 55 years and older. Analyses were based on baseline and one-year data in a sub-group of 310 participants included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World). Protein intake was estimated from four-day dietary records and 24-hour urinary urea excretion. We used linear regression to assess the association between protein intake after one year of intervention and kidney function markers: creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), urinary urea/creatinine ratio (UCR), serum creatinine, and serum urea before and after adjustments for potential confounders. A higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in UCR (p = 0.03) and serum urea (p = 0.05) after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, eGFR, ACR, or serum creatinine. We found no indication of impaired kidney function after one year with a higher protein intake in pre-diabetic older adults. Full article
Open AccessArticle Association between Vitamin D Genetic Risk Score and Cancer Risk in a Large Cohort of U.S. Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 55; doi:10.3390/nu10010055
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
Some observational studies suggest an inverse association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and cancer incidence and mortality. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis of the relationship between a vitamin D genetic risk score (GRS, range 0–10), comprised of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
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Some observational studies suggest an inverse association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and cancer incidence and mortality. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis of the relationship between a vitamin D genetic risk score (GRS, range 0–10), comprised of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vitamin D status in the DHCR7, CYP2R1 and GC genes and cancer risk among women. Analysis was performed in the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS), including 23,294 women of European ancestry who were cancer-free at baseline and followed for 20 years for incident cancer. In a subgroup of 1782 WGHS participants with 25OHD measures at baseline, the GRS was associated with circulating 25OHD mean (SD) = 67.8 (26.1) nmol/L, 56.9 (18.7) nmol/L in the lowest versus 73.2 (27.9) nmol/L in the highest quintile of the GRS (p trend < 0.0001 across quintiles). However, in age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, higher GRS (reflecting higher 25OHD levels) was not associated (cases; Hazard Ratio (HR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI)), p-value) with incident total cancer: (n = 3985; 1.01 (1.00–1.03), p = 0.17), breast (n = 1560; 1.02 (0.99–1.05), p = 0.21), colorectal (n = 329; 1.06 (1.00–1.13), p = 0.07), lung (n = 330; 1.00 (0.94–1.06), p = 0.89) or total cancer death (n = 770; 1.00 (0.96–1.04), p = 0.90). Results were similar in fully-adjusted models. A GRS for higher circulating 25OHD was not associated with cancer incidence or mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
Open AccessArticle Maternal High Fructose Intake Increases the Vulnerability to Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet-Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Offspring
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 56; doi:10.3390/nu10010056
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
Widespread consumption of high-fructose and high-fat diets relates to the global epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension may originate from early life by a combination of prenatal and postnatal nutritional insults. We examined whether maternal high-fructose diet increases vulnerability to post-weaning high-fructose or high-fat diets
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Widespread consumption of high-fructose and high-fat diets relates to the global epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension may originate from early life by a combination of prenatal and postnatal nutritional insults. We examined whether maternal high-fructose diet increases vulnerability to post-weaning high-fructose or high-fat diets induced hypertension in adult offspring and determined the underlying mechanisms. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow (ND) or chow supplemented with 60% fructose (HFR) during the entire pregnancy and lactation periods. Male offspring were onto either the regular chow, 60% fructose, or high-fat diet (HFA) from weaning to 12 weeks of age and assigned to four groups: ND/ND, HFR/ND, HFR/HFR, and HFR/HFA. Maternal high-fructose diet exacerbates post-weaning high-fat diet-induced programmed hypertension. Post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets similarly reduced Sirt4, Prkaa2, Prkag2, Ppara, Pparb, and Ppargc1a mRNA expression in offspring kidneys exposed to maternal high-fructose intake. Additionally, post-weaning high-fat diet significantly reduced renal mRNA levels of Ulk1, Atg5, and Nrf2 and induced greater oxidative stress than did high-fructose diet. Although maternal high-fructose intake increases soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) expression in the kidney, which was restored by post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets. Maternal high-fructose diet programs differential vulnerability to developing hypertension in male offspring in response to post-weaning high-fructose and high-fat diets. Our data implicated that specific therapy targeting on nutrient sensing signals, oxidative stress, and SEH may be a promising approach to prevent hypertension in children and mothers exposed to high-fructose and high-fat consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Nutraceutical Supplements and Hypertension)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns in European and Brazilian Adolescents: Comparisons and Associations with Socioeconomic Factors
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 57; doi:10.3390/nu10010057
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
Associations between dietary patterns (DP) and socioeconomic factors have been little explored in adolescents. The aim of this study was to identify DP in European and Brazilian adolescents and to investigate their associations with a range of socioeconomic indicators. Adolescents from the HELENA-study
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Associations between dietary patterns (DP) and socioeconomic factors have been little explored in adolescents. The aim of this study was to identify DP in European and Brazilian adolescents and to investigate their associations with a range of socioeconomic indicators. Adolescents from the HELENA-study and the Household Budget Survey were analyzed. Factor analysis was used to obtain DP. Linear regression was used to examine the association between DP and SES. In Europeans, the Western DP was associated with low education of the mother, high socioeconomic status (boys), older age (boys), and living in cities of the Northern Europe; in Brazilians, the Western DP was associated with high secondary education of the mother, high socioeconomic status and living in Southern areas of the country. The Traditional European DP, in both genders, was associated with high secondary education of the mother and inversely associated with a high socioeconomic status; the Traditional Brazilian DP, was associated with university level education of the mother and older age (boys). The association between DP and socioeconomic factors is relevant for the understanding of food-related practices and highlight the importance of performing a complete assessment of the socioeconomic influence in adolescent’s DP from developed and developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Eating Patterns in Patients with Compensated Cirrhosis: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 60; doi:10.3390/nu10010060
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
Background: There is growing evidence suggesting that maintaining an adequate nutritional status for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) is relevant to prevent complications. The present study aimed to describe dietary behaviours of patients with compensated and non-complicated LC and comparing them with those
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Background: There is growing evidence suggesting that maintaining an adequate nutritional status for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) is relevant to prevent complications. The present study aimed to describe dietary behaviours of patients with compensated and non-complicated LC and comparing them with those of subjects from the general population. Methods: In this case-control study, patients were volunteers enrolled in the ALICIR (ALImentation et CIRrhose) study, an observational survey nested in two French prospective cohorts of patients with biopsy-proven compensated cirrhosis related either to excessive alcohol consumption (CIRRAL) or to hepatitis B or C virus infection (CirVir). Controls were selected from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Dietary data were collected through a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary and nutritional data were compared using multi-adjusted paired Student’s tests. Results: Between June 2014 and February 2016, 174 patients of CirVir (N = 97) or CIRRAL (N = 77) were matched with 348 controls from the NutriNet-Santé cohort, according to gender, age, BMI and educational level. Compared to controls, patients (mean ± SD) consumed more sodas (236.0 ± 29.8 mL vs. 83.0 ± 33.0 mL) and water (1787.6 ± 80.6 mL vs. 933.6 ± 85.3 mL), and lower amounts of salty snacks (4.2 ± 1.42 g vs. 9.0 ± 1.6 g) and alcoholic beverages (71.8 ± 23.4 g vs. 151.2 ± 25.9 g), with all p values < 0.0001. Dietary behaviours differed according to LC aetiology. Conclusions: Dietary behaviour of patients significantly differed from subjects from the general population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Nutrition Are Associated with Bone Status in University Students
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 61; doi:10.3390/nu10010061
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
Understanding the modifiable factors that improve and maximize peak bone mass at an early age is necessary to design more effective intervention programs to prevent osteoporosis. To identify these modifiable factors, we analyzed the relationship of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, body composition,
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Understanding the modifiable factors that improve and maximize peak bone mass at an early age is necessary to design more effective intervention programs to prevent osteoporosis. To identify these modifiable factors, we analyzed the relationship of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, body composition, and dietary intake with bone stiffness index (SI), measured by quantitative ultrasonometry in young university students (18–21 years). Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was the strongest predictor of SI (β = 0.184; p = 0.035). SI was most closely related with very vigorous PA in males (β = 0.288; p = 0.040) and with the number of steps/day in females (β = 0.319; p = 0.002). An association between thigh muscle and SI was consistent in both sexes (β = 0.328; p < 0.001). Additionally, extension maximal force was a bone SI predictor factor in females (β = 0.263; p = 0.016) independent of thigh muscle perimeter. Calcium intake was the only nutrition parameter that had a positive relationship with SI (R = 0.217; p = 0.022). However, it was not included as a predictor for SI in our regression models. This study identifies predictors of bone status in each sex and indicates that muscle and bone interrelate with PA and fitness in young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Inflammatory Markers
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 62; doi:10.3390/nu10010062
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
The aim was to assess inflammatory markers among adults and adolescents in relation to the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A random sample (219 males and 379 females) of the Balearic Islands population (12–65 years) was anthropometrically measured and provided a blood sample
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The aim was to assess inflammatory markers among adults and adolescents in relation to the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A random sample (219 males and 379 females) of the Balearic Islands population (12–65 years) was anthropometrically measured and provided a blood sample to determine biomarkers of inflammation. Dietary habits were assessed and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern calculated. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age in both sexes. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescent males was 51.3% and 45.7% in adults, whereas in females 53.1% and 44.3%, respectively. In males, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher levels of adiponectin and lower levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in adults, but not in young subjects. In females, higher adherence was associated with lower levels of leptin in the young group, PAI-1 in adults and hs-CRP in both groups. With increasing age in both sexes, metabolic syndrome increases, but the adherence to the Mediterranean diet decreases. Low adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is directly associated with a worse profile of plasmatic inflammation markers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Validity of Predictive Equations for Resting Energy Expenditure Developed for Obese Patients: Impact of Body Composition Method
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 63; doi:10.3390/nu10010063
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
Predictive equations have been specifically developed for obese patients to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE). Body composition (BC) assessment is needed for some of these equations. We assessed the impact of BC methods on the accuracy of specific predictive equations developed in obese
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Predictive equations have been specifically developed for obese patients to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE). Body composition (BC) assessment is needed for some of these equations. We assessed the impact of BC methods on the accuracy of specific predictive equations developed in obese patients. REE was measured (mREE) by indirect calorimetry and BC assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). mREE, percentages of prediction accuracy (±10% of mREE) were compared. Predictive equations were studied in 2588 obese patients. Mean mREE was 1788 ± 6.3 kcal/24 h. Only the Müller (BIA) and Harris & Benedict (HB) equations provided REE with no difference from mREE. The Huang, Müller, Horie-Waitzberg, and HB formulas provided a higher accurate prediction (>60% of cases). The use of BIA provided better predictions of REE than DXA for the Huang and Müller equations. Inversely, the Horie-Waitzberg and Lazzer formulas provided a higher accuracy using DXA. Accuracy decreased when applied to patients with BMI ≥ 40, except for the Horie-Waitzberg and Lazzer (DXA) formulas. Müller equations based on BIA provided a marked improvement of REE prediction accuracy than equations not based on BC. The interest of BC to improve REE predictive equations accuracy in obese patients should be confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake, Trends, and Determinants)
Open AccessArticle Changing Trends in Nutritional Behavior among University Students in Greece, between 2006 and 2016
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 64; doi:10.3390/nu10010064
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
The objective of the present survey was to study the dietary behavior of university students residing away from the family home. In this context, we (a) compared their dietary habits in two time periods, namely 2006 and 2016; and (b) explored the possible
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The objective of the present survey was to study the dietary behavior of university students residing away from the family home. In this context, we (a) compared their dietary habits in two time periods, namely 2006 and 2016; and (b) explored the possible impact of gender on the behavioral changes in nutritional choices. A total of four hundred and five university students (2006, n = 242; 2016, n = 163) participated in the study. Dietary assessment was carried out using a qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire, while data about demographic and lifestyle factors were also collected. Students’ dietary habits have been modified in a generally desirable direction, as reflected, e.g., in the elevated consumption of several plant-based foods. Gender was also significantly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and changes in dietary attitudes. Possible reasons for the transition towards healthier and more balanced dietary habits could involve the budgetary constraints facing Greece in the last decade, as well as increasing nutritional awareness and other socio-cultural factors characterizing this target group. A deeper understanding of these relations would be crucial to foster nutritional education and further enhance the effectiveness of health promotion campaigns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Benefits of Fish Oil Consumption over Other Sources of Lipids on Metabolic Parameters in Obese Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 65; doi:10.3390/nu10010065
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of the consumption of different levels and sources of lipids on metabolic parameters of Wistar rats. Animals were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) containing 20% of lard for 12 weeks to cause metabolic obesity. Subsequently, the animals were
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This study evaluated the effect of the consumption of different levels and sources of lipids on metabolic parameters of Wistar rats. Animals were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) containing 20% of lard for 12 weeks to cause metabolic obesity. Subsequently, the animals were divided into six groups and were fed diets with lipid concentrations of 5% or 20% of lard (LD), soybean oil (SO) or fish oil (FO), for 4 weeks. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (two-way) followed by Tukey post hoc test (p < 0.05). The groups that consumed FO showed less weight gain and lower serum levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol and fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, atherogenic index, less amount of fat in the carcass, decreased Lee index and lower total leukocyte counting (p < 0.05). These same parameters were higher in LD treatment (p < 0.05). In the concentration of 20%, carcass fat content, blood glucose levels, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) decreased in FO groups (p < 0.05). The SO group had intermediate results regarding the other two treatments (FO and LD). We concluded that fish oil intake was able to modulate positively the metabolic changes resulting from HFD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with Binge Eating Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 66; doi:10.3390/nu10010066
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study
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Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study included 356 adolescents (42.7% males and 57.3% females), aged 13 to 16 years. They completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, frequency of family meals, family meal environments, family cohesion, perception of body size, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, perfectionistic self-presentation, and binge eating behavior. Furthermore, their weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. It was found that 14.0% of the participants engaged in binge eating behavior (15.2% in females and 12.5% in males). Additionally, it was identified that high levels of depressive symptoms, high levels of body dissatisfaction, poor family cohesion, and low self-esteem were significantly contributed to binge eating behavior after controlling for sex (adjusted R2 = 0.165, F = 15.056, p < 0.001). The findings may suggest that improving the relationships between family members, along with eliminating adolescents’ negative emotions could help in the prevention of binge eating behavior among adolescents. The identified modifiable risk factors should be incorporated into binge eating preventive programs to increase the effectiveness of the programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessArticle Nutritional Status of Bariatric Surgery Candidates
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 67; doi:10.3390/nu10010067
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery,
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Obesity is a global epidemic affecting populations globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity, and has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery candidates frequently have pre-existing nutritional deficiencies that might exacerbate post-surgery. To provide better health care management pre- and post-bariatric surgery, it is imperative to establish the nutritional status of prospective patients before surgery. The aim of this study was to assess and provide baseline data on the nutritional status of bariatric candidates. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2015. The medical records of 1538 patients were reviewed for this study. Pre-operatively, the most commonly observed vitamin deficiencies were Vitamin D (76%) and Vitamin B12 (16%). Anemia and iron status parameters were low in a considerable number of patients before surgery, as follows: hemoglobin 20%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 48%, ferritin 28%, serum iron 51%, and transferrin saturation 60%. Albumin and transferrin were found to be low in 10% and 9% of the patients, respectively, prior to surgery. In addition to deficiencies, a great number of patients had hypervitaminosis pre-operatively. Excess levels of Vitamin B6 (24%) was the most remarkable. The findings in this study advocate a close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bariatric Surgery)
Open AccessArticle Malnutrition, Inflammation, Atherosclerosis Syndrome (MIA) and Diet Recommendations among End-Stage Renal Disease Patients Treated with Maintenance Hemodialysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 69; doi:10.3390/nu10010069
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
Malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome is one of the causes of increased mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to assess the inflammation and nutritional status of patients in end-stage kidney disease treated with maintenance hemodialysis. The study included a group
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Malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome is one of the causes of increased mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to assess the inflammation and nutritional status of patients in end-stage kidney disease treated with maintenance hemodialysis. The study included a group of 98 hemodialyzed patients with stage 5 CKD (38 women and 60 men). Albumin, prealbumin (PRE), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in serum samples collected before mid-week dialysis. Fruit and vegetables frequency intakes were assessed with a questionnaire. CRP was above the reference limit of 5 mg/L in 53% of patients. Moreover, the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) indicated the co-occurrence of inflammation and protein calorie malnutrition in 11% of patients, and the presence of either inflammation or malnutrition in 25%. The questionnaire revealed that hemodialyzed patients frequently exclude fruit and vegetables from their diets. Nearly 43% of the interviewed patients declared frequently eating vegetables, and 35% declared frequently eating fruit, a few times per week or less. The most frequently selected fruit and vegetables had a low antioxidant capacity. The strict dietary restrictions in CKD are difficult to fulfill, and if strictly followed, may lead to protein-calorie malnutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Carotenoid Intakes and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study from Vietnam
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 70; doi:10.3390/nu10010070
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
The incidence of prostate cancer has increased in Vietnam, but there have been few studies of the risk factors associated with this change. This retrospective case-control study investigated the relation of the intake of carotenoids and their food sources to prostate cancer risk.
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The incidence of prostate cancer has increased in Vietnam, but there have been few studies of the risk factors associated with this change. This retrospective case-control study investigated the relation of the intake of carotenoids and their food sources to prostate cancer risk. A sample of 652 participants (244 incident prostate cancer patients, aged 64–75 years, and 408 age frequency-matched controls) were recruited in Ho Chi Minh City during 2013–2015. The habitual diet was ascertained with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and other factors including demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed via face-to-face interviews by trained nurses. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. The risk of prostate cancer decreased with increasing intakes of lycopene, tomatoes, and carrots; the respective ORs (95% CIs) were 0.46 (0.27, 0.77), 0.39 (0.23, 0.66), and 0.35 (0.21, 0.58), when comparing the highest with the lowest tertile of intake (p for trend < 0.01). No statistically significant associations were found for the intake of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and major food sources of carotenoids. In conclusion, Vietnamese men with a higher intake of lycopene, tomatoes, and carrots may have a lower risk of prostate cancer. However, large prospective studies are needed in this population to confirm this finding. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of Chitosan Treatment on Surrogate Serum Markers of Cholesterol Metabolism in Obese Subjects
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 72; doi:10.3390/nu10010072
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
Chitosan treatment results in significantly lower serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. To assess the working mechanisms of chitosan, we measured serum surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (campesterol, sitosterol, cholestanol), synthesis (lathosterol, lanosterol, desmosterol), and degradation to bile acids (7α-hydroxy-cholesterol, 27-hydroxy-cholesterol), corrected
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Chitosan treatment results in significantly lower serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. To assess the working mechanisms of chitosan, we measured serum surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (campesterol, sitosterol, cholestanol), synthesis (lathosterol, lanosterol, desmosterol), and degradation to bile acids (7α-hydroxy-cholesterol, 27-hydroxy-cholesterol), corrected for cholesterol concentration (R_sterols). Over 12 weeks, 116 obese subjects (Body Mass Index, BMI 31.7, range 28.1–38.9 kg/m2) were studied under chitosan (n = 61) and placebo treatments (n = 55). The participants were briefly educated regarding improvement of nutrition quality and energy expenditure. Daily chitosan intake was 3200 mg. Serum LDL cholesterol concentration decreased significantly more (p = 0.0252) under chitosan (−8.67 ± 18.18 mg/dL, 5.6%) than under placebo treatment (−1.00 ± 24.22 mg/dL, 0.9%). This reduction was not associated with the expected greater decreases in markers of cholesterol absorption under chitosan treatment. Also, increases in markers of cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis under chitosan treatment were not any greater than under placebo treatment. In conclusion, a significant selective reduction of serum LDL cholesterol under chitosan treatment is neither associated with a reduction of serum surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption, nor with increases of markers for cholesterol and bile acid synthesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Infant Development at the Age of 6 Months in Relation to Feeding Practices, Iron Status, and Growth in a Peri-Urban Community of South Africa
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 73; doi:10.3390/nu10010073
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Background: Evidence on the association between feeding practices, iron deficiency, anaemia, stunting, and impaired psychomotor development during infancy is limited. This study assessed the association between psychomotor development with early feeding practices, growth, iron status, and anaemia. Methods: This was cross-sectional baseline data
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Background: Evidence on the association between feeding practices, iron deficiency, anaemia, stunting, and impaired psychomotor development during infancy is limited. This study assessed the association between psychomotor development with early feeding practices, growth, iron status, and anaemia. Methods: This was cross-sectional baseline data of a randomised controlled trial which included 6-month-old infants and their mothers or primary caregivers (n = 750) in a peri-urban community in the North West province of South Africa. The Kilifi Developmental Inventory and a parent rating scale were used to assess psychomotor development. Feeding practices and anthropometric measurements were based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. Anaemia and iron status were determined by blood sample analysis. Results: Prevalence of anaemia and stunting for the infants were 36.4% and 28.5%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that birth weight was related to combined psychomotor scores (β = −3.427 (−4.603, 1.891), p < 0.001), as well as parent rating scores (β = −0.843 (−1.507, −0.180), p = 0.013). Length-for-age z-scores were associated with combined psychomotor scores (β = −1.419 (−2.466, 0.373), p = 0.008), as well as parent rating scores (β = −0.747 (−1.483, −0.010), p = 0.047). Conclusions: In this setting, with high prevalence of anaemia and stunting, important associations between lower psychomotor development scores and birthweight as well as length-for-age z-scores in 6-month-old infants were found. These findings warrant further investigation to develop a greater understanding of factors influencing the association between child growth and psychomotor development within the first 1000 days of life. Full article
Open AccessArticle Population Reference Values for Serum Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations and Its Relationship with Age, Sex, Race-Ethnicity, Supplement Use, Kidney Function and Serum Vitamin B12 in the Post-Folic Acid Fortification Period
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 74; doi:10.3390/nu10010074
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and
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Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569). Geometric mean MMA was ≈22.3% higher in non-Hispanic white compared to non-Hispanic black (141.2 vs. 115.5 nmol/L) and was ≈62.7% higher in >70 years old persons compared to 21–30 years old persons (196.9 vs. 121.0 nmol/L). Median serum MMA was ≈28.5% higher in the 1st the quartile of serum vitamin B-12 than in the 4th quartile of serum vitamin B-12 and was ≈35.8% higher in the 4th quartile of serum creatinine than in the 1st quartile of serum creatinine. Multivariate-adjusted serum MMA concentration was significantly associated with race-ethnicity (p < 0.001) and age (p < 0.001) but not with sex (p = 0.057). In this large US population based study, serum MMA concentrations presented here reflect the post-folic acid fortification scenario. Serum MMA concentrations begin to rise at the age of 18–20 years and continue to rise afterwards. Age-related increase in serum MMA concentration is likely to be due to a concomitant decline in kidney function and vitamin B-12 status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Supplement of Large Yellow Tea Ameliorates Metabolic Syndrome and Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis in db/db Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 75; doi:10.3390/nu10010075
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Yellow tea has been widely recognized for its health benefits. However, its effects and mechanism are largely unknown. The current study investigated the mechanism of dietary supplements of large yellow tea and its effects on metabolic syndrome and the hepatic steatosis in male
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Yellow tea has been widely recognized for its health benefits. However, its effects and mechanism are largely unknown. The current study investigated the mechanism of dietary supplements of large yellow tea and its effects on metabolic syndrome and the hepatic steatosis in male db/db mice. Our data showed that dietary supplements of large yellow tea and water extract significantly reduced water intake and food consumption, lowered the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and significantly reduced blood glucose level and increased glucose tolerance in db/db mice when compared to untreated db/db mice. In addition, the dietary supplement of large yellow tea prevented the fatty liver formation and restored the normal hepatic structure of db/db mice. Furthermore, the dietary supplement of large yellow tea obviously reduced the lipid synthesis related to gene fatty acid synthase, the sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, as well as fatty acid synthase and sterol response element-binding protein 1 expression, while the lipid catabolic genes were not altered in the liver of db/db mice. This study substantiated that the dietary supplement of large yellow tea has potential as a food additive for ameliorating type 2 diabetes-associated symptoms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gender-Associated Impact of Early Leucine Supplementation on Adult Predisposition to Obesity in Rats
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 76; doi:10.3390/nu10010076
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Early nutrition plays an important role in development and may constitute a relevant contributor to the onset of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of maternal leucine (Leu) supplementation during lactation on progeny in rats.
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Early nutrition plays an important role in development and may constitute a relevant contributor to the onset of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of maternal leucine (Leu) supplementation during lactation on progeny in rats. A chow diet, supplemented with 2% Leu, was supplied during lactation (21 days) and, from weaning onwards, was replaced by a standard chow diet. Then, at adulthood (6 months of age), this was replaced with hypercaloric diets (either with high-fat (HF) or high-carbohydrate (HC) content), for two months, to induce obesity. Female offspring from Leu-supplemented dams showed higher increases in body weight and in body fat (62%) than their respective controls; whereas males were somehow protected (15% less fat than the corresponding controls). This profile in Leu-females was associated with altered neuronal architecture at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), involving neuropeptide Y (NPY) fibers and impaired expression of neuropeptides and factors of the mTOR signaling pathway in the hypothalamus. Interestingly, leptin and adiponectin expression in adipose tissue at weaning and at the time before the onset of obesity could be defined as early biomarkers of metabolic disturbance, predisposing towards adult obesity under the appropriate environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Low-Carbohydrate, High-Protein, High-Fat Diets Rich in Livestock, Poultry and Their Products Predict Impending Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Individuals that Exceed Their Calculated Caloric Requirement
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 77; doi:10.3390/nu10010077
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
The evidence on the association between long-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is controversial. Until now, data is limited for Chinese populations, especially in considering the influence of extra energy intake. In this paper, we aimed to investigate
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The evidence on the association between long-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is controversial. Until now, data is limited for Chinese populations, especially in considering the influence of extra energy intake. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the association of low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in populations consuming extra calories and those with normal caloric intake, We also determined whether the association is mediated by insulin resistance (IR) or β-cell dysfunction. A total of 3644 subjects in the Harbin People’s Health Study (Cohort 1, 2008–2012) and 7111 subjects in the Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (Cohort 2, 2010–2015) were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 4.2 and 5.3 years, respectively. Multivariate relative risks (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to estimate the association between low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diet and T2D in logistic regression models. The multivariate RRs (95% CIs) were 1.00, 2.24 (1.07, 4.72) and 2.29 (1.07, 4.88) (Ptrend = 0.04), and 1.00, 1.45 (0.91, 2.31) and 1.64 (1.03, 2.61) (Ptrend = 0.04) across tertiles of low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diet scores in the population consuming extra calories in Cohort 1 and Cohort 2, respectively. The association was no longer significant after adjustment for livestock and its products, or poultry and its products. The mediation analysis discovered that this association in the population consuming extra calories was insulin resistance mediated, in both Cohort 1 and Cohort 2. However, the association was not significant among participants overall and participants with normal caloric intake. Our results indicated that long-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets were associated with increased T2D risk among the population consuming extra calories, which may be caused by higher intake of animal-origin fat and protein as well as lower intake of vegetables, fruit and fiber. Additionally, the association was mediated by IR. In the population consuming extra calories, reducing the intake of livestock, poultry and their products and increasing the intake of vegetables, fruit and fiber might protect this population from developing T2D. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dose-Dependent Effects of Randomized Intraduodenal Whey-Protein Loads on Glucose, Gut Hormone, and Amino Acid Concentrations in Healthy Older and Younger Men
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 78; doi:10.3390/nu10010078
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of malnutrition in older people. We have reported that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey-protein—effects on appetite-related hormones are unknown. The objective was to determine
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Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of malnutrition in older people. We have reported that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey-protein—effects on appetite-related hormones are unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of intraduodenally administered whey-protein on glucose, gut hormone, and amino acid concentrations, and their relation to subsequent ad libitum energy intake at a buffet meal, in healthy older and younger men. Hydrolyzed whey-protein (30 kcal, 90 kcal, and 180 kcal) and a saline control (~0 kcal) were infused intraduodenally for 60 min in 10 younger (19–29 years, 73 ± 2 kg, 22 ± 1 kg/m2) and 10 older (68–81 years, 79 ± 2 kg, 26 ± 1 kg/m2) healthy men in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Plasma insulin, glucagon, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), and amino acid concentrations, but not blood glucose, increased, while ghrelin decreased during the whey-protein infusions. Plasma GIP concentrations were greater in older than younger men. Energy intake correlated positively with plasma ghrelin and negatively with insulin, glucagon, GIP, GLP-1, PYY, and amino acids concentrations (p < 0.05). In conclusion, intraduodenal whey-protein infusions resulted in increased GIP and comparable ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, GIP, GLP-1, PYY, and amino acid responses in healthy older and younger men, which correlated to subsequent energy intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacological Investigation of the Anti-Inflammation and Anti-Oxidation Activities of Diallyl Disulfide in a Rat Emphysema Model Induced by Cigarette Smoke Extract
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 79; doi:10.3390/nu10010079
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is the main organosulfur ingredient in garlic, with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DADS on reducing the inflammation and redox imbalance in a rat emphysema model that was
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Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is the main organosulfur ingredient in garlic, with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DADS on reducing the inflammation and redox imbalance in a rat emphysema model that was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Briefly, DADS exerted an anti-inflammation effect on emphysema rats through decreasing cell influx in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and suppressing pro-inflammation cytokine production including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) via inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. In addition, levels of oxidative stress markers including malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were reduced, while the activities of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were markedly enhanced by DADS. Moreover, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression were down-regulated by DADS. Furthermore, the regulation effects of DADS on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were observed. In conclusion, these encouraging findings suggest that DADS could be considered as a promising anti-inflammation and antioxidative agent for the treatment of emphysema. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relationship between Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 80; doi:10.3390/nu10010080
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study
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There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR). A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers (n = 699) at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE) project. Relative validity of one day of dietary data (24HR) in assessing intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars was tested against three days of dietary data (24HR + 2DFR) using paired t-tests, Bland–Altman analysis, cross-classification, and weighted Kappa statistic. Classification analysis found good agreement between the 24HR and 24HR + 2DFR for all nutrients with the percentage classified in the same tertile at 57.9% and above. The weighted Kappa statistic found acceptable agreement for all nutrients. This study suggests that a 24HR is a valid assessment tool for estimating the relative intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars among Australian toddlers at the individual level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition: From Nutrients to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Haem and Non-Haem Iron Intake and Serum Ferritin in Healthy Young Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 81; doi:10.3390/nu10010081
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 7 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Iron is an essential micronutrient for human health and inadequate intake may result in iron deficiency (ID) or iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Unlike other recent studies investigating iron status in young women, this cross-sectional study analysed dietary intake and biochemical data from healthy
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Iron is an essential micronutrient for human health and inadequate intake may result in iron deficiency (ID) or iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Unlike other recent studies investigating iron status in young women, this cross-sectional study analysed dietary intake and biochemical data from healthy young (18–35 years) women (n = 299) to determine the association between both haem iron (HI) and non-haem iron (NHI) intakes and serum ferritin (SF). Dietary restraint and possible inflammation secondary to obesity were also measured and accounted for, and energy intake was adjusted for using the residuals method. Independent samples t-tests and chi-squared tests were performed, and factors found to be significantly different between iron replete (IR) and ID/IDA participants were analysed using general linear modelling. ID/IDA participants consumed significantly lower total energy than iron replete (IR) (p = 0.003). Lower energy intake was also associated with higher levels of dietary restraint (p = 0.001). Both HI and NHI were positively associated with SF with HI was found to be a stronger predictor (β = 0.128, p = 0.009) than NHI (β = 0.037, p = 0.028). The study demonstrates that intake of both HI and NHI, as well as adequate dietary energy, are associated with normal iron status levels in young women, and that restrained eaters may be at greater risk of low iron status. Full article
Open AccessArticle Validation of a Rapid Method to Assess Habitual Beverage Intake Patterns
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 83; doi:10.3390/nu10010083
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
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Abstract
The Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) is an emerging approach to assess beverage pattern quality. HBI total scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating greater adherence to proposed beverage recommendations. However, assessing patterns is resource-intensive due to the need for extensive
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The Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) is an emerging approach to assess beverage pattern quality. HBI total scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating greater adherence to proposed beverage recommendations. However, assessing patterns is resource-intensive due to the need for extensive dietary data, typically 24-h dietary records or recalls. The BEVQ-15, a beverage intake questionnaire, may be used as an alternative method to rapidly measure HBI scores. The objective of this cross-sectional investigation is to assess the comparative validity of the HBI-Q, a method to rapidly assess HBI scores via the BEVQ-15, as compared to the traditional method of deriving HBI scores via dietary recalls/records. Between 2012 and 2016, a cross-sectional sample of adults in southwest Virginia completed three 24-h dietary recalls (30–60 min administration and analysis time per recall) and the BEVQ-15 (3–4 min administration time). HBI scores were generated by both methods, and compared via paired-samples t-tests, correlations, and Bland–Altman analysis. Among 404 adults (mean age = 40 years), total mean HBI scores were 63.7 from the HBI-Q and 67.3 from the recalls (mean difference = 3.6 out of 100; r = 0.63; both p ≤ 0.001). Agreement between the two methods for total HBI scores via Bland–Altman plots was 92%. Using the HBI-Q to rapidly assess HBI scores in adults will increase the utility of the HBI by decreasing the time and resources required, thus allowing researchers and practitioners to provide targeted feedback for improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Association between the Frequency of Protein-Rich Food Intakes and Kihon-Checklist Frailty Indices in Older Japanese Adults: The Kyoto-Kameoka Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 84; doi:10.3390/nu10010084
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
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Abstract
We aimed to investigate whether frequencies of protein-rich food intake were associated with frailty among older Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among 3843 men and 4331 women in a population-based cohort of Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Frailty was
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We aimed to investigate whether frequencies of protein-rich food intake were associated with frailty among older Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among 3843 men and 4331 women in a population-based cohort of Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Frailty was assessed by the weighted score based on the 25-item Kihon-Checklist. The frequency of protein-rich food intake was examined as “seafood”, “meat”, “dairy products”, “eggs”, and “soy products”. The outcome of frailty was analyzed with a multiple logistic regression model using the frequency of protein-rich food intake. When compared to the first quartile, it was observed that there was a significant association between the lower adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for frailty and the frequency of seafood intake in the fourth quartile among men (PR 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42, 0.99) and from the second quartile to the third quartile among women (PR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.43, 0.85; PR 0.64, 95% CI, 0.46, 0.91). The frequency of dairy products intake in the third quartile among women was significantly associated with a lower PR for frailty (p-value = 0.013). Our findings suggest that the consumption of seafood and dairy products may help older adults in maintaining their independence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Acute Post-Prandial Cognitive Effects of Brown Seaweed Extract in Humans
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 85; doi:10.3390/nu10010085
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
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Abstract
(Poly)phenols and, specifically, phlorotannins present in brown seaweeds have previously been shown to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, key enzymes involved in the breakdown and intestinal absorption of carbohydrates. Related to this are observations of modulation of post-prandial glycemic response in mice and increased
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(Poly)phenols and, specifically, phlorotannins present in brown seaweeds have previously been shown to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, key enzymes involved in the breakdown and intestinal absorption of carbohydrates. Related to this are observations of modulation of post-prandial glycemic response in mice and increased insulin sensitivity in humans when supplemented with seaweed extract. However, no studies to date have explored the effect of seaweed extract on cognition. The current randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups study examined the impact of a brown seaweed extract on cognitive function post-prandially in 60 healthy adults (N = 30 per group). Computerized measures of episodic memory, attention and subjective state were completed at baseline and 5 times at 40 min intervals over a 3 h period following lunch, with either seaweed or placebo consumed 30 min prior to lunch. Analysis was conducted with linear mixed models controlling for baseline. Seaweed led to significant improvements to accuracy on digit vigilance (p = 0.035) and choice reaction time (p = 0.043) tasks. These findings provide the first evidence for modulation of cognition with seaweed extract. In order to explore the mechanism underlying these effects, future research should examine effects on cognition in parallel with blood glucose and insulin responses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Longitudinal Study of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Status throughout Pregnancy and Exclusive Lactation in New Zealand Mothers and Their Infants at 45° S
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 86; doi:10.3390/nu10010086
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
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Abstract
Vitamin D status and associated metabolism during pregnancy and lactation have been assessed in only a limited number of longitudinal studies, all from the northern hemisphere, with no infant data concurrently reported. Therefore, we aimed to describe longitudinal maternal and infant 25-hydroxy vitamin
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Vitamin D status and associated metabolism during pregnancy and lactation have been assessed in only a limited number of longitudinal studies, all from the northern hemisphere, with no infant data concurrently reported. Therefore, we aimed to describe longitudinal maternal and infant 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) status during pregnancy and up to 5 months postnatal age, in New Zealand women and their infants living at 45° S latitude. Between September 2011 and June 2013, 126 pregnant women intending to exclusively breastfeed for at least 20 weeks were recruited. Longitudinal data were collected at three time-points spanning pregnancy, and following birth and at 20 weeks postpartum. Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 50 nmol/L) was common, found at one or more time-points in 65% and 76% of mothers and their infants, respectively. Mean cord 25OHD was 41 nmol/L, and three infants exhibited secondary hyperparathyroidism by postnatal week 20. Maternal late pregnancy 25OHD (gestation 32–38 weeks) was closely correlated with infant cord 25OHD, r2 = 0.87 (95% CI (Confidence interval) 0.8–0.91), while no correlation was seen between early pregnancy (<20 weeks gestation) maternal and cord 25OHD, r2 = 0.06 (95% CI −0.16–0.28). Among other variables, pregnancy 25OHD status, and therefore infant status at birth, were influenced by season of conception. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency in women and their infants is very common during pregnancy and lactation in New Zealand at 45° S. These data raise questions regarding the applicability of current pregnancy and lactation policy at this latitude, particularly recommendations relating to first trimester maternal vitamin D screening and targeted supplementation for those “at risk”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Guanidinoacetic Acid and Creatine are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Healthy Men and Women: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 87; doi:10.3390/nu10010087
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
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Abstract
Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) conversion to creatine is thought to be involved in cardiometabolic disturbances through its role in biological methylation and insulin secretion. We evaluated the association of serum GAA and creatine with cardiometabolic risk factors in a cohort of 151 apparently healthy
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Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) conversion to creatine is thought to be involved in cardiometabolic disturbances through its role in biological methylation and insulin secretion. We evaluated the association of serum GAA and creatine with cardiometabolic risk factors in a cohort of 151 apparently healthy adults (82 women and 69 men) aged 18–63 years. Serum levels of GAA and creatine were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A multiple linear regression model adjusted for age and sex was employed to examine the relationship of serum GAA and creatine with cardiometabolic risk factors. Higher GAA levels were associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profile (higher insulin, higher total homocysteine, and higher body fat percentage), while having elevated serum creatine levels (≥31.1 µmol/L) was associated with being overweight (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m). The results from our study suggest a possible role of the GAA–creatine axis in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Coffee Intake and Liver Steatosis: A Population Study in a Mediterranean Area
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 89; doi:10.3390/nu10010089
Received: 3 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
Coffee drinking seems to have several beneficial effects on health outcomes. However, the effect on hepatic steatosis, depending on a high alcohol consumption (AFLD, alcoholic fatty liver disease) or on metabolic factors (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD), is still equivocal. Thus, we aimed
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Coffee drinking seems to have several beneficial effects on health outcomes. However, the effect on hepatic steatosis, depending on a high alcohol consumption (AFLD, alcoholic fatty liver disease) or on metabolic factors (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD), is still equivocal. Thus, we aimed to explore the potential association between coffee consumption and the presence and severity of hepatic steatosis in people with NAFLD or AFLD. In this cross-sectional study, coffee drinking was recorded using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and categorized as yes vs. no and as 0, 1, 2, ≥3. The degree of fatty liver was assessed through a standardized ultrasound examination (score 0 to 6, with higher values reflecting higher severity). Liver steatosis was classified as NAFLD or AFLD on daily alcohol intake >30 g/day for men and >20 g/day for women. This study included 2819 middle-aged participants; the great majority were coffee drinkers (86.1%). After adjusting for 12 potential confounders, drinking coffee was not associated with decreased odds for NAFLD (n = 916) (odds ratio, OR = 0.93; 95% confidence intervals, CI: 0.72–1.20) or AFLD (n = 276) (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.66–2.0). The consumption of coffee (categorized as yes vs. no), or an increased consumption of coffee were not associated with the presence of mild, moderate or severe liver steatosis in either NAFLD or AFLD. In conclusion, coffee intake was not associated with any lower odds of hepatic steatosis in either non-alcoholic or alcoholic forms in this large cohort of South Italian individuals. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dairy-Related Dietary Patterns, Dietary Calcium, Body Weight and Composition: A Study of Obesity in Polish Mothers and Daughters, the MODAF Project
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 90; doi:10.3390/nu10010090
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
The role of the family environment in regards to dairy products and dietary calcium in the context of obesity is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the association among dairy-related dietary patterns (DDPs), dietary calcium, body weight and
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The role of the family environment in regards to dairy products and dietary calcium in the context of obesity is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the association among dairy-related dietary patterns (DDPs), dietary calcium, body weight and composition in mothers and daughters. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey within the MODAF Project. A total sample of 712 pairs of mothers (<60 years) and daughters (12–21 years) was studied. This study included 691 pairs. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (ADOS-Ca) was used to collect dietary data. Waist circumference (WC), body fat, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI) were determined. Previously derived DDPs were used—three in mothers and three in daughters. In mothers, two of the DDPs were characterized by higher consumption of various dairy products with suboptimal calcium content (means: 703 or 796 mg/day) which decreased the chance of: z-WC > 1 standard deviation (SD), WC > 80 cm, body fat > 32%, WHtR > 0.5, BMI = 25–29.9 kg/m2 or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 by 44–67% when compared to low-dairy low-calcium DDP (288 mg/day). In mothers per 100 mg/day of dietary calcium, the chance of z-WC > 1SD, WC > 80 cm, z-WHtR > 1SD, WHtR > 0.5 cm, BMI = 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 decreased by 5–9%. In correspondence analysis, a clear association was found between mothers’ and daughters’ low-dairy low-calcium DDPs and upper categories of z-WC (>1 SDs). This study reinforces evidence of the similarity between mothers and daughters in dairy-related dietary patterns and provides a new insight on the adverse relation between low-dairy low-calcium dietary patterns and obesity. It was found that diets containing various dairy products with suboptimal dietary calcium content may be recommended in obesity prevention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deoxyschizandrin, Isolated from Schisandra Berries, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Ovarian Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Protumoural Activation of Tumour-Associated Macrophages
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 91; doi:10.3390/nu10010091
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
Deoxyschizandrin, a major lignan of Schisandra berries, has been demonstrated to have various biological activities such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. However, the anti-cancer effects of deoxyschizandrin are poorly characterized. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of deoxyschizandrin on
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Deoxyschizandrin, a major lignan of Schisandra berries, has been demonstrated to have various biological activities such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. However, the anti-cancer effects of deoxyschizandrin are poorly characterized. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of deoxyschizandrin on human ovarian cancer cell lines and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs). Deoxyschizandrin induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and inhibited cyclin E expression in human ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of cyclin E significantly reversed the deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition. Interestingly, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased activation of Akt were observed in A2780 cells treated with deoxyschizandrin, and the antioxidant compromised the deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition and Akt inactivation. Moreover, deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition was markedly suppressed by Akt overexpression. In addition, deoxyschizandrin was found to inhibit the expression of the M2 phenotype markers CD163 and CD209 in TAMs, macrophages stimulated by the ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, expression and production of the tumour-promoting factors MMP-9, RANTES, and VEGF, which are highly enhanced in TAMs, was significantly suppressed by deoxyschizandrin treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that deoxyschizandrin exerts anti-cancer effects by inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer cells and reducing the protumoural phenotype of TAMs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Does a High Sugar High Fat Dietary Pattern Explain the Unequal Burden in Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in a Multi-Ethnic Population in The Netherlands? The HELIUS Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 92; doi:10.3390/nu10010092
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher
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The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for T2D. Information on this association in minority populations is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the HSHF dietary pattern and its role in the unequal burden of T2D prevalence in a multi-ethnic population in The Netherlands. We included 4694 participants aged 18–70 years of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS study. Dutch participants scored the highest on the HSHF dietary pattern, followed by the Turkish, Moroccan, African Surinamese, and South-Asian Surinamese participants. Prevalence ratios (PR) for T2D were then calculated using multivariate cox regression analyses, adjusted for sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors. Higher adherence to an HSHF diet was not significantly related to T2D prevalence in the total study sample (PR 1.04 high versus low adherence, 95% CI: 0.80–1.35). In line, adjustment for HSHF diet score did not explain the ethnic differences in T2D. For instance, the PR of the South-Asian Surinamese vs. Dutch changed from 2.76 (95% CI: 2.05–3.72) to 2.90 (95% CI: 2.11–3.98) after adjustment for HSHF. To conclude, a western dietary pattern high in sugar and saturated fat was not associated with T2D, and did not explain the unequal burden in prevalence of T2D across the ethnic groups. Full article
Open AccessArticle Amaranthus caudatus Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Goto-Kakizaki Rats, a Model of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 94; doi:10.3390/nu10010094
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic
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Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic nutraceutical property of an AC hydroethanolic extract that contains mainly sugars and traces of polyphenols and amino acids (as shown by nalysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and healthy Wistar (W) rats. A single oral administration of AC extract (2000 mg/kg body weight) improved glucose tolerance during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests (OGTT) in both GK rats and in W rats. Long-term treatment (21 days) with AC (1000 mg/kg b.w.) improved the glucose tolerance evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose levels during the OGTT, in both GK and W rats. The HbA1c levels were reduced in both GK (19.83%) and W rats (10.7%). This effect was secondary to an increase in serum insulin levels in both GK and W rats and confirmed in pancreatic islets, isolated from treated animals, where the chronic AC exposure increased the insulin production 4.1-fold in GK and 3.7-fold in W rat islets. Furthermore, the effect of AC on in vitro glucose-dependent insulin secretion (16.7 mM glucose) was concentration-dependent up to 50 mg/mL, with 8.5-fold increase in GK and 5.7-fold in W rat islets, and the insulin secretion in perifused GK and W rat islets increased 31 and nine times, respectively. The mechanism of action of AC on insulin secretion was shown to involve calcium, PKA and PKC activation, and G-protein coupled-exocytosis since the AC effect was reduced 38% by nifedipine (L-type channel inhibitor), 77% by H89 (PKA inhibitor), 79% by Calphostine-C (PKC inhibitor) and 20% by pertussis toxin (G-protein suppressor). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Intake of Flavonoids and Ventilatory Function in European Adults: A GA2LEN Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 95; doi:10.3390/nu10010095
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
Background: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA2LEN screening survey, in which 55,000
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Background: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA2LEN screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15 to 75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was obtained from 2850 subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio between the forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FVC (FEV1/FVC), FVC below lower limit of normal (FVC < LLN), and FEV1/FVC < LLN were calculated. Intake of the six main subclasses of flavonoids was estimated using the GA2LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations between outcomes and each subclass of flavonoids were examined with multivariate regressions. Simes’ procedure was used to test for multiple comparisons. Results: A total of 2599 subjects had valid lung function and dietary data. A lower prevalence of FVC < LLN (airway restriction) was observed in those with higher total flavonoid (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), higher vs. lowest quintile intake 0.58; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36, 0.94), and pro-anthocyanidin intakes (aOR 0.47; 95% CI 0.27, 0.81). A higher FEV1/FVC was associated with higher intakes of total flavonoids and pro-anthocyanidins (adjusted correlation coefficient (a β-coeff 0.33; 0.10, 0.57 and a β-coeff 0.44; 95% CI 0.19, 0.69, respectively). After Simes’ procedure, the statistical significance of each of these associations was attenuated but remained below 0.05, with the exception of total flavonoids and airway restriction. Conclusions: This population-based study in European adults provides cross-sectional evidence of a positive association of total flavonoid intake and pro-anthocyanidins and ventilatory function, and a negative association with spirometric restriction in European adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake—A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 96; doi:10.3390/nu10010096
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake
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Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Specific Collagen Peptides Improve Bone Mineral Density and Bone Markers in Postmenopausal Women—A Randomized Controlled Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 97; doi:10.3390/nu10010097
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
Introduction: Investigations in rodents as well as in vitro experiments have suggested an anabolic influence of specific collagen peptides (SCP) on bone formation and bone mineral density (BMD). The goal of the study was to investigate the effect of 12-month daily oral administration
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Introduction: Investigations in rodents as well as in vitro experiments have suggested an anabolic influence of specific collagen peptides (SCP) on bone formation and bone mineral density (BMD). The goal of the study was to investigate the effect of 12-month daily oral administration of 5 g SCP vs. placebo (CG: control group) on BMD in postmenopausal women with primary, age-related reduction in BMD. Methods: 131 women were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded investigation. The primary endpoint was the change in BMD of the femoral neck and the spine after 12 months. In addition, plasma levels of bone markers—amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP) and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX 1)—were analysed. Results: A total of 102 women completed the study, but all subjects were included in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis (age 64.3 ± 7.2 years; Body Mass Index, BMI 23.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2; T-score spine −2.4 ± 0.6; T-score femoral neck −1.4 ± 0.5). In the SCP group (n = 66), BMD of the spine and of the femoral neck increased significantly compared to the control group (n = 65) (T-score spine: SCP +0.1 ± 0.26; CG −0.03 ± 0.18; ANCOVA p = 0.030; T-score femoral neck: SCP +0.09 ± 0.24; CG −0.01 ± 0.19; ANCOVA p = 0.003). P1NP increased significantly in the SCP group (p = 0.007), whereas CTX 1 increased significantly in the control group (p = 0.011). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the intake of SCP increased BMD in postmenopausal women with primary, age-related reduction of BMD. In addition, SCP supplementation was associated with a favorable shift in bone markers, indicating increased bone formation and reduced bone degradation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Sodium and Potassium Content of the Most Commonly Available Street Foods in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan in the Context of the FEEDCities Project
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 98; doi:10.3390/nu10010098
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
This cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing sodium (Na) and potassium (K) content and the molar Na:K ratios of the most commonly available ready-to-eat street foods in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Four different samples of each of these foods were collected and 62 food
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This cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing sodium (Na) and potassium (K) content and the molar Na:K ratios of the most commonly available ready-to-eat street foods in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Four different samples of each of these foods were collected and 62 food categories were evaluated through bromatological analysis. Flame photometry was used to quantify sodium and potassium concentrations. The results show that home-made foods can be important sources of sodium. In particular, main dishes and sandwiches, respectively, contain more than 1400 and nearly 1000 mg Na in an average serving and provide approximately 70% and 50% of the maximum daily recommended values. Wide ranges of sodium content were found between individual samples of the same home-made food collected from different vending sites from both countries. In industrial foods, sodium contents ranged from 1 to 1511 mg/serving in Tajikistan, and from 19 to 658 mg/serving in Kyrgyzstan. Most Na:K ratios exceeded the recommended level of 1.0 and the highest ratios were found in home-made snacks (21.2) from Tajikistan and industrial beverages (16.4) from Kyrgyzstan. These findings not only improve data on the nutritional composition of foods in these countries, but may also serve as baseline information for future policies and interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Modifications in the Consumption of Energy, Sugar, and Saturated Fat among the Mexican Adult Population: Simulation of the Effect When Replacing Processed Foods that Comply with a Front of Package Labeling System
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 101; doi:10.3390/nu10010101
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
A Mexican Committee of Nutrition Experts (MCNE) from the National Institute of Public Health (INSP), free from conflict of interest, established food content standards to place the front-of-package (FOP) logo on foods that meet these nutrition criteria. The objectives were to simulate the
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A Mexican Committee of Nutrition Experts (MCNE) from the National Institute of Public Health (INSP), free from conflict of interest, established food content standards to place the front-of-package (FOP) logo on foods that meet these nutrition criteria. The objectives were to simulate the effect on nutrient intake in the Mexican adult population (20–59 years old) after replacing commonly consumed processed foods with those that meet the FOP nutrition-labeling criteria. Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were collected from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 2164 adults). A food database from the INSP was used. Weighted medians and 25–75 inter-quartile ranges (IQR) of energy and nutrient intake were calculated for all subjects by sociodemographic characteristics before and after replacing foods. Significant decreases were observed in energy (−5.4%), saturated fatty acids (−18.9%), trans-fatty acids (−20%), total sugar (−36.8%) and sodium (−10.7%) intake and a significant increase in fiber intake (+15.5%) after replacing foods, using the MCNE nutrition criteria. Replacing commonly consumed processed foods in the diet with foods that meet the FOP nutrition-labeling criteria set by the MCNE can lead to improvements in energy and nutrient intake in the Mexican adult population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sources of Added Sugars in Young Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Low and High Intakes of Added Sugars
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 102; doi:10.3390/nu10010102
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
High intake of added sugars is associated with excess energy intake and poorer diet quality. The objective of this cross-sectional study (n = 16,806) was to estimate usual intakes and the primary food sources of added sugars across the range of intakes
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High intake of added sugars is associated with excess energy intake and poorer diet quality. The objective of this cross-sectional study (n = 16,806) was to estimate usual intakes and the primary food sources of added sugars across the range of intakes (i.e., deciles) among U.S. children (2–8 years), adolescents and teens (9–18 years), and adults (≥19 years) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) data from 2009–2012. The percent energy contributed by added sugars was 14.3 ± 0.2% (2–8 years), 16.2 ± 0.2% (9–18 years), and 13.1 ± 0.2% (≥19 years), suggesting the highest intakes are among adolescents and teens. However, the primary foods/beverages that contribute to added sugars were remarkably consistent across the range of intakes, with the exception of the lowest decile, and include sweetened beverages and sweet bakery products. Interestingly across all age groups, even those in the lowest decile of added sugars exceed the 10% guidelines. Additional foods contributing to high intakes were candy and other desserts (e.g., ice cream) in children and adolescents, and coffee and teas in adults. Tailoring public health messaging to reduce intakes of these identified food groups may be of utility in designing effective strategies to reduce added sugar intake in the U.S. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dietary Acid Load and Potassium Intake Associate with Blood Pressure and Hypertension Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the German Adult Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 103; doi:10.3390/nu10010103
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, like the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-diet, are usually characterized by high potassium intake and reduced dietary acid load, and have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP). However, the relevance of potential renal acid load
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Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, like the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-diet, are usually characterized by high potassium intake and reduced dietary acid load, and have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP). However, the relevance of potential renal acid load (PRAL) for BP has not been compared with the relevance to BP of urinary biomarker (K-urine)- and dietary food frequency questionnaire (K-FFQ)-based estimates of potassium intake in a general adult population sample. For 6788 participants (aged 18–79 years) of the representative German Health-Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), associations of PRAL, K-urine, and K-FFQ with BP and hypertension prevalence were cross-sectionally examined in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. PRAL was significantly associated with higher systolic BP (p = 0.0002) and higher hypertension prevalence (Odds ratio [OR] high vs. low PRAL = 1.45, p = 0.0004) in models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), estimated sodium intake, kidney function, relevant medication, and further important covariates. Higher estimates of K-FFQ and K-urine were related to lower systolic BP (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001) and lower hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.82, p = 0.04 and OR = 0.77, p = 0.02) as well as a lower diastolic BP (p = 0.03 and p = 0.0003). Our results show, for the first time in a comparative analysis of a large representative population sample, significant relationships of BP and hypertension prevalence with questionnaire- and biomarker-based estimates of potassium intake and with an estimate of dietary acid load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Prevention and Acid Base Status)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Validity and Reproducibility of the Zinc-Specific Dietary Intake Questionnaire Conducted for Young Polish Female Respondents
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 104; doi:10.3390/nu10010104
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
One of the brief methods enabling the assessment of the zinc intake and identification of individuals characterized by insufficient zinc intake, is zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire. The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the elaborated zinc-specific food
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One of the brief methods enabling the assessment of the zinc intake and identification of individuals characterized by insufficient zinc intake, is zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire. The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the elaborated zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire ZINC-FFQ (Zinc INtake Calculation—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of young Polish female respondents. The validity was assessed in comparison with 3-day dietary records, while reproducibility was assessed for the ZINC-FFQ filled in twice (FFQ1 and FFQ2—six weeks apart). Bland–Altman indexes in the assessment of validity were 5.5% (FFQ1) and 6.7% (FFQ2), while in assessment of reproducibility it was 3.3%. In the assessment of reproducibility, 83% of respondents were classified into the same category of zinc intake adequacy and 72% of respondents were classified into the same tertile, that contributed to weighted κ statistic of 0.65 (substantial agreement). It may be concluded, that ZINC-FFQ is characterized by a validity on a satisfactory and reproducibility on a very good level, in a group of young Polish female respondents, and may be applied to indicate individuals characterized by the risk of insufficient intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Fatty Acids Alter Lipid Profiles and Induce Myocardial Dysfunction without Causing Metabolic Disorders in Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 106; doi:10.3390/nu10010106
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Oversupply of bulk saturated fatty acids (SFA) induces metabolic disorders and myocardial dysfunction. We investigated whether, without causing metabolic disorders, the uptake of individual dietary SFA species alters lipid profiles and induces myocardial dysfunction. C57BL/6 mice were fed various customized long-chain SFA diets
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Oversupply of bulk saturated fatty acids (SFA) induces metabolic disorders and myocardial dysfunction. We investigated whether, without causing metabolic disorders, the uptake of individual dietary SFA species alters lipid profiles and induces myocardial dysfunction. C57BL/6 mice were fed various customized long-chain SFA diets (40% caloric intake from SFA), including a beef tallow (HBD), cocoa butter (HCD), milk fat (HMD) and palm oil diet (HPD), for 6 months. An isocaloric fat diet, containing medium-chain triglycerides, served as a control (CHD). Long-term intake of dietary long-chain SFA differentially affected the fatty acid composition in cardiac phospholipids. All long-chain SFA diets increased the levels of arachidonic acid and total SFA in cardiac phospholipids. The preferential incorporation of individual SFA into the cardiac phospholipid fraction was dependent on the dietary SFA species. Cardiac ceramide content was elevated in all mice fed long-chain SFA diets, while cardiac hypertrophy was only presented in mice fed HMD or HPD. We have demonstrated that the intake of long-chain SFA species differentially alters cardiac lipid profiles and induces cardiac dysfunction, without causing remarkable metabolic disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 108; doi:10.3390/nu10010108
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat
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Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI) in B1, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Stauntonia hexaphylla Fruit Extract in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated RAW-264.7 Macrophages and Rats by Carrageenan-Induced Hind Paw Swelling
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 110; doi:10.3390/nu10010110
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
The fruit of Stauntonia hexaphylla is commonly used as a traditional anthelmintic in Korea, Japan, and China. However, its anti-inflammatory activity and the underlying mechanisms have not been studied systematically. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous extract
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The fruit of Stauntonia hexaphylla is commonly used as a traditional anthelmintic in Korea, Japan, and China. However, its anti-inflammatory activity and the underlying mechanisms have not been studied systematically. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous extract of S. hexaphylla fruit (SHF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. The SHF extract contained anti-inflammatory compounds, such as neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and cryptochlorogenic acid. The extract inhibited protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the activity of cyclooxygenase enzyme, with concomitant reductions in the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, the SHF extract reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. The SHF extract attenuated LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of its inhibitor, IκBα. Furthermore, the SHF extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in vivo by reducing the volume of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Our results suggest that the SHF extract exerts potential anti-inflammatory properties against LPS-activated RAW 254.7 cells, and in an animal model of inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effects of Dietary Protein on Thyroid Axis Activity
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 5; doi:10.3390/nu10010005
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for the normal development and function of every vertebrate. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is regulated to maintain euthyroid status. One of the most influential environmental factors that determines HPT axis activity is nutrition. Both food availability and substrate
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Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for the normal development and function of every vertebrate. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is regulated to maintain euthyroid status. One of the most influential environmental factors that determines HPT axis activity is nutrition. Both food availability and substrate diversity affect thyroid hormone economy. The present paper aims to summarize literature data concerning the influence of the amount and the type of protein on thyroid axis activity. This review sheds light on the contribution of a low-protein diet or insufficient intake of essential amino acids to TH abnormalities. We believe that the knowledge of these dependencies could improve the results of nutritional interventions in thyroid axis disorders and enhance the efficiency of animal breeding. Full article
Open AccessReview Zinc in Wound Healing Modulation
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 16; doi:10.3390/nu10010016
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 17 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
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Abstract
Wound care is a major healthcare expenditure. Treatment of burns, surgical and trauma wounds, diabetic lower limb ulcers and skin wounds is a major medical challenge with current therapies largely focused on supportive care measures. Successful wound repair requires a series of tightly
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Wound care is a major healthcare expenditure. Treatment of burns, surgical and trauma wounds, diabetic lower limb ulcers and skin wounds is a major medical challenge with current therapies largely focused on supportive care measures. Successful wound repair requires a series of tightly coordinated steps including coagulation, inflammation, angiogenesis, new tissue formation and extracellular matrix remodelling. Zinc is an essential trace element (micronutrient) which plays important roles in human physiology. Zinc is a cofactor for many metalloenzymes required for cell membrane repair, cell proliferation, growth and immune system function. The pathological effects of zinc deficiency include the occurrence of skin lesions, growth retardation, impaired immune function and compromised would healing. Here, we discuss investigations on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of zinc in modulating the wound healing process. Knowledge gained from this body of research will help to translate these findings into future clinical management of wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Potential Role of Amino Acid/Protein Nutrition and Exercise in Serum Albumin Redox State
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 17; doi:10.3390/nu10010017
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
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Abstract
Albumin is the major protein in the serum of mammals. It is synthesized exclusively in the liver, before being secreted into the circulation. Similar to skeletal muscle protein, albumin synthesis is stimulated by dietary amino acids and proteins as well as exercise. Albumin
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Albumin is the major protein in the serum of mammals. It is synthesized exclusively in the liver, before being secreted into the circulation. Similar to skeletal muscle protein, albumin synthesis is stimulated by dietary amino acids and proteins as well as exercise. Albumin has three isoforms based on the redox states of the free cysteine residue at position 34. The redox state of serum albumin has long been extensively investigated in terms of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases, with the redox state of serum albumin having been regarded as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. However, according to recent animal studies, the redox state of serum albumin is modulated by albumin turnover and may also reflect amino acid/protein nutritional status. Furthermore, as the redox state of serum albumin is modulated by exercise training, measuring the pre- and post-exercise redox states of serum albumin in athletes may be useful in assessing amino acid/protein nutritional status and exercise-induced oxidative stress, which are closely associated with skeletal muscle adaptive responses. This article extensively reviews serum albumin and the redox state of albumin in the context of amino acid/protein nutritional status and exercise training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessReview Carbohydrates for Soccer: A Focus on Skilled Actions and Half-Time Practices
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 22; doi:10.3390/nu10010022
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
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Abstract
Carbohydrate consumption is synonymous with soccer performance due to the established effects on endogenous energy store preservation, and physical capacity maintenance. For performance-enhancement purposes, exogenous energy consumption (in the form of drinks, bars, gels and snacks) is recommended on match-day; specifically, before and
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Carbohydrate consumption is synonymous with soccer performance due to the established effects on endogenous energy store preservation, and physical capacity maintenance. For performance-enhancement purposes, exogenous energy consumption (in the form of drinks, bars, gels and snacks) is recommended on match-day; specifically, before and during match-play. Akin to the demands of soccer, limited opportunities exist to consume carbohydrates outside of scheduled breaks in competition, such as at half-time. The link between cognitive function and blood glucose availability suggests that carbohydrates may influence decision-making and technical proficiency (e.g., soccer skills). However, relatively few reviews have focused on technical, as opposed to physical, performance while also addressing the practicalities associated with carbohydrate consumption when limited in-play feeding opportunities exist. Transient physiological responses associated with reductions in activity prevalent in scheduled intra-match breaks (e.g., half-time) likely have important consequences for practitioners aiming to optimize match-day performance. Accordingly, this review evaluated novel developments in soccer literature regarding (1) the ergogenic properties of carbohydrates for skill performance; and (2) novel considerations concerning exogenous energy provision during half-time. Recommendations are made to modify half-time practices in an aim to enhance subsequent performance. Viable future research opportunities exist regarding a deeper insight into carbohydrate provision on match-day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
Open AccessReview Dietary Fiber and Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Related Mechanisms
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 24; doi:10.3390/nu10010024
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Dietary fiber intake may provide beneficial effects on the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, observational studies reported inconsistent results for the relationship between dietary fiber intake and MetS risk. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify previous observational studies and a
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(1) Background: Dietary fiber intake may provide beneficial effects on the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, observational studies reported inconsistent results for the relationship between dietary fiber intake and MetS risk. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify previous observational studies and a narrative review to summarize mechanisms involved in the potential relationship. (2) Methods: The literature was searched on PubMed and Web of Science until 28 November 2017. A random-effects model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates. Eleven cross-sectional studies and three cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results from the original studies were reported as odds ratios (ORs) or relative ratios (RRs) of the MetS associated with different levels of dietary fiber intake, and the ORs/RRs comparing the highest with lowest categories of the intake were pooled. (3) Results: For the cross-sectional studies, the pooled OR was 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61–0.82) with evidence of high heterogeneity (I2 = 74.4%, p < 0.001) and publication bias (p for Egger’s test < 0.001). After removing four studies, results remained significant (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.58–0.78) and the heterogeneity was largely reduced (I2 = 32.4%, p = 0.181). For the cohort studies, the pooled RR was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.70–1.06). (4) Conclusion: Although the meta-analysis suggests an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and risk of MetS, and the association was supported by a wide range of mechanism studies, the findings are limited by insufficient cohort data. More prospective studies are needed to further verify the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of MetS. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Disturbed Vitamin A Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 29; doi:10.3390/nu10010029
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A’s functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and
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Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A’s functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs).The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1) it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2) it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3) it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In times of inadequate dietary intake, the liver maintains stable circulating retinol levels of approximately 2 μmol/L, sufficient to provide the body with this vitamin for months. Liver diseases, in particular those leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis, are associated with impaired vitamin A homeostasis and may lead to vitamin A deficiency. Liver injury triggers HSCs to transdifferentiate to myofibroblasts that produce excessive amounts of extracellular matrix, leading to fibrosis. HSCs lose the retinyl ester stores in this process, ultimately leading to vitamin A deficiency. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is a spectrum of conditions ranging from benign hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); it may progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. NASH is projected to be the main cause of liver failure in the near future. Retinoic acids are key regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver and adipose tissue, but it is unknown whether impaired vitamin A homeostasis contributes to or suppresses the development of NAFLD. A genetic variant of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3-I148M) is the most prominent heritable factor associated with NAFLD. Interestingly, PNPLA3 harbors retinyl ester hydrolase activity and PNPLA3-I148M is associated with low serum retinol level, but enhanced retinyl esters in the liver of NAFLD patients. Low circulating retinol in NAFLD may therefore not reflect true “vitamin A deficiency”, but rather disturbed vitamin A metabolism. Here, we summarize current knowledge about vitamin A metabolism in NAFLD and its putative role in the progression of liver disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of vitamin A metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Batzella, Crambe and Monanchora: Highly Prolific Marine Sponge Genera Yielding Compounds with Potential Applications for Cancer and Other Therapeutic Areas
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 33; doi:10.3390/nu10010033
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
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Abstract
Pyrroloquinoline and guanidine-derived alkaloids present distinct groups of marine secondary metabolites with structural diversity that displayed potentialities in biological research. A considerable number of these molecular architectures had been recorded from marine sponges belonging to different marine genera, including Batzella, Crambe,
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Pyrroloquinoline and guanidine-derived alkaloids present distinct groups of marine secondary metabolites with structural diversity that displayed potentialities in biological research. A considerable number of these molecular architectures had been recorded from marine sponges belonging to different marine genera, including Batzella, Crambe, Monanchora, Clathria, Ptilocaulis and New Caledonian starfishes Fromia monilis and Celerina heffernani. In this review, we aim to comprehensively cover the chemodiversity and the bioactivities landmarks centered around the chemical constituents exclusively isolated from these three marine genera including Batzella, Crambe and Monanchora over the period 1981–2017, paying a special attention to the polycyclic guanidinic compounds and their proposed biomimetic landmarks. It is concluded that these marine sponge genera represent a rich source of novel compounds with potential applications for cancer and other therapeutic areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Potential Anticancer Properties of Osthol: A Comprehensive Mechanistic Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 36; doi:10.3390/nu10010036
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
Cancer is caused by uncontrolled cell proliferation which has the potential to occur in different tissues and spread into surrounding and distant tissues. Despite the current advances in the field of anticancer agents, rapidly developing resistance against different chemotherapeutic drugs and significantly higher
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Cancer is caused by uncontrolled cell proliferation which has the potential to occur in different tissues and spread into surrounding and distant tissues. Despite the current advances in the field of anticancer agents, rapidly developing resistance against different chemotherapeutic drugs and significantly higher off-target effects cause millions of deaths every year. Osthol is a natural coumarin isolated from Apiaceaous plants which has demonstrated several pharmacological effects, such as antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We have attempted to summarize up-to-date information related to pharmacological effects and molecular mechanisms of osthol as a lead compound in managing malignancies. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane library, ScienceDirect and Scopus were searched for in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies on anticancer effects of osthol. Osthol exerts remarkable anticancer properties by suppressing cancer cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Osthol’s protective and therapeutic effects have been observed in different cancers, including ovarian, cervical, colon and prostate cancers as well as chronic myeloid leukemia, lung adenocarcinoma, glioma, hepatocellular, glioblastoma, renal and invasive mammary carcinoma. A large body of evidence demonstrates that osthol regulates apoptosis, proliferation and invasion in different types of malignant cells which are mediated by multiple signal transduction cascades. In this review, we set spotlights on various pathways which are targeted by osthol in different cancers to inhibit cancer development and progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
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Open AccessReview Fat, Sugar, Whole Grains and Heart Disease: 50 Years of Confusion
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 39; doi:10.3390/nu10010039
Received: 25 November 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
During the 1970s some investigators proposed that refined carbohydrates, especially sugar and a low intake of dietary fiber, were major factors in coronary heart disease (CHD). This suggestion was eclipsed by the belief that an excess intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was
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During the 1970s some investigators proposed that refined carbohydrates, especially sugar and a low intake of dietary fiber, were major factors in coronary heart disease (CHD). This suggestion was eclipsed by the belief that an excess intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was the key dietary factor, a view that prevailed from roughly 1974 to 2014. Findings that have accumulated since 1990 inform us that the role of SFA in the causation of CHD has been much exaggerated. A switch from SFA to refined carbohydrates does not lower the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol in the blood and therefore does not prevent CHD. A reduced intake of SFA combined with an increased intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids lowers the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol; this may reduce the risk of CHD. The evidence linking carbohydrate-rich foods with CHD has been steadily strengthening. Refined carbohydrates, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, increase the risk of CHD. Conversely, whole grains and cereal fiber are protective. An extra one or 2 servings per day of these foods increases or decreases risk by approximately 10% to 20%. Full article
Open AccessReview Soy Consumption and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 40; doi:10.3390/nu10010040
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men worldwide. Asian populations consume soy foods as part of a regular diet, which may contribute to the lower PCa incidence observed in these
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men worldwide. Asian populations consume soy foods as part of a regular diet, which may contribute to the lower PCa incidence observed in these countries. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive updated analysis that builds on previously published meta-analyses, demonstrating that soy foods and their isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) are associated with a lower risk of prostate carcinogenesis. Thirty articles were included for analysis of the potential impacts of soy food intake, isoflavone intake, and circulating isoflavone levels, on both primary and advanced PCa. Total soy food (p < 0.001), genistein (p = 0.008), daidzein (p = 0.018), and unfermented soy food (p < 0.001) intakes were significantly associated with a reduced risk of PCa. Fermented soy food intake, total isoflavone intake, and circulating isoflavones were not associated with PCa risk. Neither soy food intake nor circulating isoflavones were associated with advanced PCa risk, although very few studies currently exist to examine potential associations. Combined, this evidence from observational studies shows a statistically significant association between soy consumption and decreased PCa risk. Further studies are required to support soy consumption as a prophylactic dietary approach to reduce PCa carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 41; doi:10.3390/nu10010041
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
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Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science
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Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes examples of some of the regulatory challenges faced and some resources for those who wish to learn more about them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
Open AccessReview Immune-Mediated Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Treating Pediatric Intestinal Diseases
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 42; doi:10.3390/nu10010042
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
The pediatric population is continually at risk of developing infectious and inflammatory diseases. The treatment for infections, particularly gastrointestinal conditions, focuses on oral or intravenous rehydration, nutritional support and, in certain case, antibiotics. Over the past decade, the probiotics and synbiotics administration for
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The pediatric population is continually at risk of developing infectious and inflammatory diseases. The treatment for infections, particularly gastrointestinal conditions, focuses on oral or intravenous rehydration, nutritional support and, in certain case, antibiotics. Over the past decade, the probiotics and synbiotics administration for the prevention and treatment of different acute and chronic infectious diseases has dramatically increased. Probiotic microorganisms are primarily used as treatments because they can stimulate changes in the intestinal microbial ecosystem and improve the immunological status of the host. The beneficial impact of probiotics is mediated by different mechanisms. These mechanisms include the probiotics’ capacity to increase the intestinal barrier function, to prevent bacterial transferation and to modulate inflammation through immune receptor cascade signaling, as well as their ability to regulate the expression of selected host intestinal genes. Nevertheless, with respect to pediatric intestinal diseases, information pertaining to these key mechanisms of action is scarce, particularly for immune-mediated mechanisms of action. In the present work, we review the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of action of probiotics and synbiotics that affect the immune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessReview Soy, Soy Foods and Their Role in Vegetarian Diets
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 43; doi:10.3390/nu10010043
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
Soy is a basic food ingredient of traditional Asian cuisine used for thousands of years. In Western countries, soybeans have been introduced about a hundred years ago and recently they are mainly used for surrogate foods production. Soy and soy foods are common
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Soy is a basic food ingredient of traditional Asian cuisine used for thousands of years. In Western countries, soybeans have been introduced about a hundred years ago and recently they are mainly used for surrogate foods production. Soy and soy foods are common nutritional solutions for vegetarians, due to their high protein content and versatility in the production of meat analogues and milk substitutes. However, there are some doubts about the potential effects on health, such as the effectiveness on cardiovascular risk reduction or, conversely, on the possible disruption of thyroid function and sexual hormones. The soy components that have stimulated the most research interest are isoflavones, which are polyphenols with estrogenic properties highly contained in soybeans. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of soy and soy foods, focusing on their nutrient content, including phytoestrogens and other bioactive substances that are noteworthy for vegetarians, the largest soy consumers in the Western countries. The safety of use will also be discussed, given the growing trend in adoption of vegetarian styles and the new soy-based foods availability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Science of Vegetarian Nutrition and Health)
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Open AccessReview Mediterranean Diet and Other Dietary Patterns in Primary Prevention of Heart Failure and Changes in Cardiac Function Markers: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 58; doi:10.3390/nu10010058
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
Background: Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome and is recognized as the ultimate pathway of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies using nutritional strategies based on dietary patterns have proved to be effective for the prevention and treatment of CVD. Although there are studies
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Background: Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome and is recognized as the ultimate pathway of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies using nutritional strategies based on dietary patterns have proved to be effective for the prevention and treatment of CVD. Although there are studies that support the protective effect of these diets, their effects on the prevention of HF are not clear yet. Methods: We searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases for studies that examined dietary patterns, such as dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH diet), paleolithic, vegetarian, low-carb and low-fat diets and prevention of HF. No limitations were used during the search in the databases. Results: A total of 1119 studies were identified, 14 met the inclusion criteria. Studies regarding the Mediterranean, DASH, vegetarian, and Paleolithic diets were found. The Mediterranean and DASH diets showed a protective effect on the incidence of HF and/or worsening of cardiac function parameters, with a significant difference in relation to patients who did not adhere to these dietary patterns. Conclusions: It is observed that the adoption of Mediterranean or DASH-type dietary patterns may contribute to the prevention of HF, but these results need to be analyzed with caution due to the low quality of evidence. Full article
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Open AccessReview Is Hypovitaminosis D Related to Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes and High Fasting Glucose Level in Healthy Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 59; doi:10.3390/nu10010059
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
There is evidence that vitamin D status is associated with type 2 diabetes. Many observational studies have been performed investigating the relationship of vitamin D status and circulating biomarkers of glycemic regulation. To find out whether this association holds, we conducted a systematic
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There is evidence that vitamin D status is associated with type 2 diabetes. Many observational studies have been performed investigating the relationship of vitamin D status and circulating biomarkers of glycemic regulation. To find out whether this association holds, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross sectional and longitudinal studies. We searched Pubmed, Medline and Embase, all through June 2017. The studies were selected to determine the effect of vitamin D on the parameters of glucose metabolism in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Correlation coefficients from all studies were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis. The risk of bias was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. We found significant inverse relationship of vitamin D status with glycemic level in both diabetic (r = −0.223, 95% CI = −0.184 to −0.261, p = 0.000) and non-diabetic (r = −0.073, 95% CI = −0.052 to −0.093, p = 0.000) subjects. This meta-analysis concludes that hypovitaminosis D is associated with increased risk of hyperglycemia both in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. A future strategy for the prevention of impaired glycemic regulation could be individualized supplementation of vitamin D. Full article
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Open AccessReview Zinc Status and Autoimmunity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 68; doi:10.3390/nu10010068
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
Zinc is an essential trace element for living organisms and their biological processes. Zinc plays a key role in more than 300 enzymes and it is involved in cell communication, proliferation, differentiation and survival. Zinc plays also a role in regulating the immune
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Zinc is an essential trace element for living organisms and their biological processes. Zinc plays a key role in more than 300 enzymes and it is involved in cell communication, proliferation, differentiation and survival. Zinc plays also a role in regulating the immune system with implications in pathologies where zinc deficiency and inflammation are observed. In order to examine the experimental evidence reported in the literature regarding zinc levels in the body of patients with autoimmune disorders compared to control individuals, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. From 26,095 articles identified by literature search, only 179 of them were considered potentially relevant for our study and then examined. Of the 179 articles, only 62 satisfied the inclusion criteria. Particularly for Fixed Model, Zn concentration in both serum (mean effect = −1.19; confidence interval: −1.26 to −1.11) and plasma (mean effect = −3.97; confidence interval: −4.08 to −3.87) samples of autoimmune disease patients was significantly lower than in controls. The data presented in our work, although very heterogeneous in the manner of collecting and investigating samples, have proved to be extremely consistent in witnessing a deficiency of zinc in serum and plasma of patients compared to controls. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Food Addiction and Binge Eating: Lessons Learned from Animal Models
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 71; doi:10.3390/nu10010071
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered “addictive” under normal circumstances, people can become “addicted” to this behaviour,
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The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered “addictive” under normal circumstances, people can become “addicted” to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of “eating addiction” are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways. However, while the drug addiction process has been highly characterised, eating addiction is a nascent field. In fact, there is still a great controversy over the concept of “food addiction”. This review aims to summarize the most relevant animal models of “eating addictive behaviour”, emphasising binge eating disorder, that could help us to understand the neurobiological mechanisms hidden under this behaviour, and to improve the psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment in patients suffering from these pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
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Open AccessReview Rational Management of Iron-Deficiency Anaemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 82; doi:10.3390/nu10010082
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
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Abstract
Anaemia is the most frequent, though often neglected, comorbidity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we want to briefly present (1) the burden of anaemia in IBD, (2) its pathophysiology, which mostly arises from bleeding-associated iron deficiency, followed by (3) diagnostic evaluation of
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Anaemia is the most frequent, though often neglected, comorbidity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we want to briefly present (1) the burden of anaemia in IBD, (2) its pathophysiology, which mostly arises from bleeding-associated iron deficiency, followed by (3) diagnostic evaluation of anaemia, (4) a balanced overview of the different modes of iron replacement therapy, (5) evidence for their therapeutic efficacy and subsequently, (6) an updated recommendation for the practical management of anaemia in IBD. Following the introduction of various intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, questions persist about when to use these preparations as opposed to traditional and other novel oral iron therapeutic agents. At present, oral iron therapy is generally preferred for patients with quiescent IBD and mild iron-deficiency anaemia. However, in patients with flaring IBD that hampers intestinal iron absorption and in those with inadequate responses to or side effects with oral preparations, intravenous iron supplementation is the therapy of choice, although information on the efficacy of intravenous iron in patients with active IBD and anaemia is scare. Importantly, anaemia in IBD is often multifactorial and a careful diagnostic workup is mandatory for optimized treatment. Nevertheless, limited information is available on optimal therapeutic start and end points for treatment of anaemia. Of note, neither oral nor intravenous therapies seem to exacerbate the clinical course of IBD. However, additional prospective studies are still warranted to determine the optimal therapy in complex conditions such as IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailbility and Absorption)
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Open AccessReview Associations between Zinc Deficiency and Metabolic Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 88; doi:10.3390/nu10010088
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 14 January 2018
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Abstract
Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element which has favorable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and apoptotic effects. The liver mainly plays a crucial role in maintaining systemic Zn homeostasis. Therefore, the occurrence of chronic liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or fatty liver,
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Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element which has favorable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and apoptotic effects. The liver mainly plays a crucial role in maintaining systemic Zn homeostasis. Therefore, the occurrence of chronic liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or fatty liver, results in the impairment of Zn metabolism, and subsequently Zn deficiency. Zn deficiency causes plenty of metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and hepatic encephalopathy. Inversely, metabolic abnormalities like hypoalbuminemia in patients with liver cirrhosis often result in Zn deficiency. Recent studies have revealed the putative mechanisms by which Zn deficiency evokes a variety of metabolic abnormalities in chronic liver disease. Zn supplementation has shown beneficial effects on such metabolic abnormalities in experimental models and actual patients with chronic liver disease. This review summarizes the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities deriving from Zn deficiency and the favorable effects of Zn administration in patients with chronic liver disease. In addition, we also highlight the interactions between Zn and other trace elements, vitamins, amino acids, or hormones in such patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Interstitial Glucose and Physical Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes: Integrative Physiology, Technology, and the Gap In-Between
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 93; doi:10.3390/nu10010093
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
Continuous and flash glucose monitoring systems measure interstitial fluid glucose concentrations within a body compartment that is dramatically altered by posture and is responsive to the physiological and metabolic changes that enable exercise performance in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Body fluid redistribution
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Continuous and flash glucose monitoring systems measure interstitial fluid glucose concentrations within a body compartment that is dramatically altered by posture and is responsive to the physiological and metabolic changes that enable exercise performance in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Body fluid redistribution within the interstitial compartment, alterations in interstitial fluid volume, changes in rate and direction of fluid flow between the vasculature, interstitium and lymphatics, as well as alterations in the rate of glucose production and uptake by exercising tissues, make for caution when interpreting device read-outs in a rapidly changing internal environment during acute exercise. We present an understanding of the physiological and metabolic changes taking place with acute exercise and detail the blood and interstitial glucose responses with different forms of exercise, namely sustained endurance, high-intensity, and strength exercises in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Further, we detail novel technical information on currently available patient devices. As more health services and insurance companies advocate their use, understanding continuous and flash glucose monitoring for its strengths and limitations may offer more confidence for patients aiming to manage glycemia around exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 100; doi:10.3390/nu10010100
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of
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Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
Open AccessReview Carbohydrate Counting in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 109; doi:10.3390/nu10010109
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Carbohydrate counting (CC) is a meal-planning tool for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with a basal bolus insulin regimen by means of multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. It is based on an awareness of foods that contain carbohydrates
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Carbohydrate counting (CC) is a meal-planning tool for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with a basal bolus insulin regimen by means of multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. It is based on an awareness of foods that contain carbohydrates and their effect on blood glucose. The bolus insulin dose needed is obtained from the total amount of carbohydrates consumed at each meal and the insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio. Evidence suggests that CC may have positive effects on metabolic control and on reducing glycosylated haemoglobin concentration (HbA1c). Moreover, CC might reduce the frequency of hypoglycaemia. In addition, with CC the flexibility of meals and snacks allows children and teenagers to manage their T1D more effectively within their own lifestyles. CC and the bolus calculator can have possible beneficial effects in improving post-meal glucose, with a higher percentage of values within the target. Moreover, CC might be integrated with the counting of fat and protein to more accurately calculate the insulin bolus. In conclusion, in children and adolescents with T1D, CC may have a positive effect on metabolic control, might reduce hypoglycaemia events, improves quality of life, and seems to do so without influencing body mass index; however, more high-quality clinical trials are needed to confirm this positive impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)

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Open AccessConference Report Report on Second International Conference on Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy Held in Kayseri, Turkey, 8–11 November 2017
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 8; doi:10.3390/nu10010008
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
Scientific experts from eight countries gathered[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
Open AccessDiscussion Considerations for Secondary Prevention of Nutritional Deficiencies in High-Risk Groups in High-Income Countries
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 47; doi:10.3390/nu10010047
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
Surveys in high-income countries show that inadequacies and deficiencies can be common for some nutrients, particularly in vulnerable subgroups of the population. Inadequate intakes, high requirements for rapid growth and development, or age- or disease-related impairments in nutrient intake, digestion, absorption, or increased
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Surveys in high-income countries show that inadequacies and deficiencies can be common for some nutrients, particularly in vulnerable subgroups of the population. Inadequate intakes, high requirements for rapid growth and development, or age- or disease-related impairments in nutrient intake, digestion, absorption, or increased nutrient losses can lead to micronutrient deficiencies. The consequent subclinical conditions are difficult to recognize if not screened for and often go unnoticed. Nutrient deficiencies can be persistent despite primary nutrition interventions that are aimed at improving dietary intakes. Secondary prevention that targets groups at high risk of inadequacy or deficiency, such as in the primary care setting, can be a useful complementary approach to address persistent nutritional gaps. However, this strategy is often underestimated and overlooked as potentially cost-effective means to prevent future health care costs and to improve the health and quality of life of individuals. In this paper, the authors discuss key appraisal criteria to consider when evaluating the benefits and disadvantages of a secondary prevention of nutrient deficiencies through screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessCommentary Investigating Binge Eating Using Ecological Momentary Assessment: The Importance of an Appropriate Sampling Frequency
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 105; doi:10.3390/nu10010105
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
With great interest, we read the recently published review on emotion regulation in binge eating disorder (BED) by Dingemans et al. [1].[...] Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper Utilizing Dietary Micronutrient Ratios in Nutritional Research May be More Informative than Focusing on Single Nutrients
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 107; doi:10.3390/nu10010107
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions
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The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass. Some nutrient ratios exist and remain controversial such as the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and the sodium/potassium ratio. Therefore, examining ratios of micronutrients may convey more information about how diet and health outcomes are related. Summarized micronutrient intake data, from food only, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were used to generate initial ratios. Overall, in this preliminary analysis dietary ratios of micronutrients showed some differences between intakes and recommendations. Principles outlined here could be used in nutritional epidemiology and in basic nutritional research, rather than focusing on individual nutrient intakes. This paper presents the concept of micronutrient ratios to encourage change in the way nutrients are regarded. Full article
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