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Remote Sens., Volume 2, Issue 8 (August 2010), Pages 1864-2039

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle From TLS to VLS: Biomass Estimation at Individual Tree Level
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(8), 1864-1879; doi:10.3390/rs2081864
Received: 30 May 2010 / Revised: 18 June 2010 / Accepted: 7 July 2010 / Published: 26 July 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study explores the applicability of vehicle-based laser scanning (VLS) for biomass estimation at individual tree level, since biomass serves as an essential biophysical parameter indicating tree health. Previous work suggests that terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been primarily validated for biomass [...] Read more.
This study explores the applicability of vehicle-based laser scanning (VLS) for biomass estimation at individual tree level, since biomass serves as an essential biophysical parameter indicating tree health. Previous work suggests that terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been primarily validated for biomass prediction, however, in subject to laborious relocation in practice. VLS, as an advanced mode of TLS with more flexible mobility and also high sampling density, can work as a new efficient technique for surveying single trees. Combined with the positive binds between the biomass and TLS-samplings during manual defoliation, this work aims to seek the relations between biomass and VLS-samplings, by correlating the VLS- and TLS-samplings within the same crowns during natural foliation. The resulting R2 values of the two correlations after normalization are larger than 0.88 and 0.61, respectively, and the associated root mean square errors (RMSEs) are less than 0.051 and 0.076. VLS, thus, can be validated for estimating biomass at the individual tree level, with the TLS-investigated data as a bridging reference. Full article
Open AccessArticle Detecting Ecosystem Performance Anomalies for Land Management in the Upper Colorado River Basin Using Satellite Observations, Climate Data, and Ecosystem Models
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(8), 1880-1891; doi:10.3390/rs2081880
Received: 26 June 2010 / Revised: 22 July 2010 / Accepted: 28 July 2010 / Published: 29 July 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study identifies areas with ecosystem performance anomalies (EPA) within the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) during 2005–2007 using satellite observations, climate data, and ecosystem models. The final EPA maps with 250-m spatial resolution were categorized as normal performance, underperformance, and overperformance [...] Read more.
This study identifies areas with ecosystem performance anomalies (EPA) within the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) during 2005–2007 using satellite observations, climate data, and ecosystem models. The final EPA maps with 250-m spatial resolution were categorized as normal performance, underperformance, and overperformance (observed performance relative to weather-based predictions) at the 90% level of confidence. The EPA maps were validated using “percentage of bare soil” ground observations. The validation results at locations with comparable site potential showed that regions identified as persistently underperforming (overperforming) tended to have a higher (lower) percentage of bare soil, suggesting that our preliminary EPA maps are reliable and agree with ground-based observations. The 3-year (2005–2007) persistent EPA map from this study provides the first quantitative evaluation of ecosystem performance anomalies within the UCRB and will help the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) identify potentially degraded lands. Results from this study can be used as a prototype by BLM and other land managers for making optimal land management decisions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Properties of Reflectance Reference Targets for Permanent Radiometric Test Sites of High Resolution Airborne Imaging Systems
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(8), 1892-1917; doi:10.3390/rs2081892
Received: 30 June 2010 / Revised: 23 July 2010 / Accepted: 26 July 2010 / Published: 9 August 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reliable and optimal exploitation of rapidly developing airborne imaging methods requires geometric and radiometric quality assurance of production systems in operational conditions. Permanent test sites are the most promising approach for cost-efficient performance assessment. Optimal construction of permanent radiometric test sites for [...] Read more.
Reliable and optimal exploitation of rapidly developing airborne imaging methods requires geometric and radiometric quality assurance of production systems in operational conditions. Permanent test sites are the most promising approach for cost-efficient performance assessment. Optimal construction of permanent radiometric test sites for high resolution airborne imaging systems is an unresolved issue. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of commercially available gravels and painted and unpainted concrete targets for permanent, open-air radiometric test sites under sub-optimal climate conditions in Southern Finland. The reflectance spectrum and reflectance anisotropy and their stability were characterized during the summer of 2009. The management of reflectance anisotropy and stability were shown to be the key issues for better than 5% reflectance accuracy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Land Surface Albedos Computed from BRF Measurements with a Study of Conversion Formulae
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(8), 1918-1940; doi:10.3390/rs2081918
Received: 30 May 2010 / Revised: 11 June 2010 / Accepted: 25 June 2010 / Published: 12 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land surface hemispherical albedos of several targets have been resolved using the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) library of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI). The library contains BRF data measured by FGI during the years 2003–2009. Surface albedos are calculated using selected BRF [...] Read more.
Land surface hemispherical albedos of several targets have been resolved using the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) library of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI). The library contains BRF data measured by FGI during the years 2003–2009. Surface albedos are calculated using selected BRF datasets from the library. Polynomial interpolation and extrapolation have been used in computations. Several broadband conversion formulae generally used for satellite based surface albedo retrieval have been tested. The albedos were typically found to monotonically increase with increasing zenith angle of the Sun. The surface albedo variance was significant even within each target category / surface type. In general, the albedo estimates derived using diverse broadband conversion formulas and estimates obtained by direct integration of the measured spectra were in line. Full article
Open AccessArticle Erosion Relevant Topographical Parameters Derived from Different DEMs—A Comparative Study from the Indian Lesser Himalayas
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(8), 1941-1961; doi:10.3390/rs2081941
Received: 30 June 2010 / Revised: 2 August 2010 / Accepted: 2 August 2010 / Published: 13 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Topography is a crucial surface characteristic in soil erosion modeling. Soil erosion studies use a digital elevation model (DEM) to derive the topographical characteristics of a study area. Majority of the times, a DEM is incorporated into erosion models as a given [...] Read more.
Topography is a crucial surface characteristic in soil erosion modeling. Soil erosion studies use a digital elevation model (DEM) to derive the topographical characteristics of a study area. Majority of the times, a DEM is incorporated into erosion models as a given parameter and it is not tested as extensively as are the parameters related to soil, land-use and climate. This study compares erosion relevant topographical parameters—elevation, slope, aspect, LS factor—derived from 3 DEMs at original and 20 m interpolated resolution with field measurements for a 13 km2 watershed located in the Indian Lesser Himalaya. The DEMs are: a TOPO DEM generated from digitized contour lines on a 1:50,000 topographical map; a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM at 90-m resolution; and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM at 15-m resolution. Significant differences across the DEMs were observed for all the parameters. The highest resolution ASTER DEM was found to be the poorest of all the tested DEMs as the topographical parameters derived from it differed significantly from those derived from other DEMs and field measurements. TOPO DEM, which is, theoretically more detailed, produced similar results to the coarser SRTM DEM, but failed to produce an improved representation of the watershed topography. Comparison with field measurements and mixed regression modeling proved SRTM DEM to be the most reliable among the tested DEMs for the studied watershed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Eclipse Impact on a Remote Sensing Data Set: PAL NDVI 10-Day Composite from February 11 to 20 in 1999 for Western Australia
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(8), 1962-1972; doi:10.3390/rs2081962
Received: 30 June 2010 / Revised: 21 July 2010 / Accepted: 16 August 2010 / Published: 18 August 2010
PDF Full-text (597 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pathfinder Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Channel 1 (Red) and Channel 2 (near-infrared) of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA 14 became abnormally high for the 10-day composite from February 11 to 20 in 1999 for Western Australia. [...] Read more.
Pathfinder Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Channel 1 (Red) and Channel 2 (near-infrared) of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA 14 became abnormally high for the 10-day composite from February 11 to 20 in 1999 for Western Australia. There was a solar eclipse in the satellite path on February 16 about the same time when NOAA 14 was above the eclipse location, causing the Channel 1 value to be 0 in many cells. The NDVI composite updating rule was to capture the greenest condition of each composite period. There seems to have been a possible lack of quality control during the NDVI composite generation, which could have caused the abnormally high NDVI values. However, there were some cells within the affected area that had values close to normal for NDVI as well as Channel 1 and Channel 2. The abnormal NDVI data values could have been avoided by not using the data obtained during the eclipse in the generation of the composite. Further investigation on those cells which were not affected by the eclipse is suggested for a better quality control of remote sensing data obtained during eclipse occurrences. Full article
Open AccessArticle Variation of Routine Soil Analysis When Compared with Hyperspectral Narrow Band Sensing Method
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(8), 1998-2016; doi:10.3390/rs2081998
Received: 25 June 2010 / Revised: 29 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 July 2010 / Published: 24 August 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objectives of this research were to: (i) develop hyperspectral narrow-band models to determine soil variables such as organic matter content (OM), sum of cations (SC = Ca + Mg + K), aluminum saturation (m%), cations saturation (V%), cations exchangeable capacity (CEC), [...] Read more.
The objectives of this research were to: (i) develop hyperspectral narrow-band models to determine soil variables such as organic matter content (OM), sum of cations (SC = Ca + Mg + K), aluminum saturation (m%), cations saturation (V%), cations exchangeable capacity (CEC), silt, sand and clay content using visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) diffuse reflectance spectra; (ii) compare the variations of the chemical and the spectroradiometric soil analysis (Vis-NIR). The study area is located in São Paulo State, Brazil. The soils were sampled over an area of 473 ha divided into grids (100 × 100 m) with a total of 948 soil samples georeferenced. The laboratory RS data were obtained using an IRIS (Infrared Intelligent Spectroradiometer) sensor (400–2,500 nm) with a 2-nm spectral resolution between 450 and 1,000 nm and 4-nm between 1,000 and 2,500 nm. Satellite reflectance values were sampled from corrected Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images. Each pixel in the image was evaluated as its vegetation index, color compositions and soil line concepts regarding certain locations of the field in the image. Chemical and physical analysis (organic matter content, sand, silt, clay, sum of cations, cations saturation, aluminum saturation and cations exchange capacity) were performed in the laboratory. Statistical analysis and multiple regression equations for soil attribute predictions using radiometric data were developed. Laboratory data used 22 bands and 13 “Reflectance Inflexion Differences, RID” from different wavelength intervals of the optical spectrum. However, for TM-Landsat six bands were used in analysis (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7).Estimations of some tropical soil attributes were possible using laboratory spectral analysis. Laboratory spectral reflectance (SR) presented high correlations with traditional laboratory analyses for the soil attributes such as clay (R2 = 0.84, RMSE = 3.75) and sand (R2 = 0.85, RMSE = 3.74). The most sensitive narrow-bands in modeling (using 474 observations) these attributes were B8 (1,350–1,417 nm), B10 (1,417–1,449 nm), B11 (1,449–1,793 nm), B15 (1,927–2,102 nm), B16 (2,101–2,139 nm), and B17 (2,139–2,206 nm); B7 (975–1,350 nm), B10, B11, B16, B19 (2,206–2,258 nm) and B21 (2,258–2,389 nm) for clay and sand, respectively. The bands selected to model sand and clay, by orbital data, were 3, 5 and 7 of TM-Landsat-5 and 2, 5 and 7 sand and clay, respectively. The use of soil analysis methodology by ground remote sensing constitutes an alternative to traditional routine laboratory analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Croplands)
Open AccessArticle Towards Sea Ice Remote Sensing with Space Detected GPS Signals: Demonstration of Technical Feasibility and Initial Consistency Check Using Low Resolution Sea Ice Information
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(8), 2017-2039; doi:10.3390/rs2082017
Received: 30 June 2010 / Revised: 11 August 2010 / Accepted: 11 August 2010 / Published: 25 August 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents two space detected Global Positioning System (GPS)signals reflected off sea ice and compares the returned power profiles with independent estimates of ice concentration provided by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and sea ice charts from the National Ice [...] Read more.
This paper presents two space detected Global Positioning System (GPS)signals reflected off sea ice and compares the returned power profiles with independent estimates of ice concentration provided by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and sea ice charts from the National Ice Center. The results of the analysis show significantly different signals received for each of the GPS reflections. For the first collection,comparisons with ice concentration estimates from AMSR-E and the National Ice Centers reveal a very strong GPS signal return off high concentration sea ice. The second GPS data collection occurs over a region of changing sea ice concentration, and the GPS signal level responds at roughly the same point that the AMSR-E data and National Ice Center charts indicate a change in ice concentration. However, the very strong signal of the first GPS collection is not consistent in magnitude with similar ice concentrations during the secondGPS data collection. This demonstration shows the potential and the difficulties of this new technique as a valuable low-cost compliment to existing sea ice monitoring instruments. Additionally, a general method for calculating the location of the specular reflection point on the Earth’s surface and the received Doppler frequencies and code phase delays is presented as part of an on-board open-loop signal tracking technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Applications)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technological Applications for Site-specific Management of Fruit and Nut Crops: A Review
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(8), 1973-1997; doi:10.3390/rs2081973
Received: 30 June 2010 / Revised: 16 August 2010 / Accepted: 17 August 2010 / Published: 23 August 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Site-specific crop management (SSCM) is one facet of precision agriculture which is helping increase production with minimal input. It has enhanced the cost-benefit scenario in crop production. Even though the SSCM is very widely used in row crop agriculture like corn, wheat, [...] Read more.
Site-specific crop management (SSCM) is one facet of precision agriculture which is helping increase production with minimal input. It has enhanced the cost-benefit scenario in crop production. Even though the SSCM is very widely used in row crop agriculture like corn, wheat, rice, soybean, etc. it has very little application in cash crops like fruit and nut. The main goal of this review paper was to conduct a comprehensive review of advanced technologies, including geospatial technologies, used in site-specific management of fruit and nut crops. The review explores various remote sensing data from different platforms like satellite, LIDAR, aerial, and field imaging. The study analyzes the use of satellite sensors, such as Quickbird, Landsat, SPOT, and IRS imagery as well as hyperspectral narrow-band remote sensing data in study of fruit and nut crops in blueberry, citrus, peach, apple, etc. The study also explores other geospatial technologies such as GPS, GIS spatial modeling, advanced image processing techniques, and information technology for suitability study, orchard delineation, and classification accuracy assessment. The study also provides an example of a geospatial model developed in ArcGIS ModelBuilder to automate the blueberry production suitability analysis. The GIS spatial model is developed using various crop characteristics such as chilling hours, soil permeability, drainage, and pH, and land cover to determine the best sites for growing blueberry in Georgia, U.S. The study also provides a list of spectral reflectance curves developed for some fruit and nut crops, blueberry, crowberry, redblush citrus, orange, prickly pear, and peach. The study also explains these curves in detail to help researchers choose the image platform, sensor, and spectrum wavelength for various fruit and nut crops SSCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Croplands)

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