Molecular Genetic Analysis of Orf Virus: A Poxvirus That Has Adapted to Skin
AbstractOrf virus is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. It induces acute pustular skin lesions in sheep and goats and is transmissible to humans. The genome is G+C rich, 138 kbp and encodes 132 genes. It shares many essential genes with vaccinia virus that are required for survival but encodes a number of unique factors that allow it to replicate in the highly specific immune environment of skin. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that both viral interleukin-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor genes have been “captured” from their host during the evolution of the parapoxviruses. Genes such as a chemokine binding protein and a protein that binds granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-2 appear to have evolved from a common poxvirus ancestral gene while three parapoxvirus nuclear factor (NF)-κB signalling pathway inhibitors have no homology to other known NF-κB inhibitors. A homologue of an anaphase-promoting complex subunit that is believed to manipulate the cell cycle and enhance viral DNA synthesis appears to be a specific adaptation for viral-replication in keratinocytes. The review focuses on the unique genes of orf virus, discusses their evolutionary origins and their role in allowing viral-replication in the skin epidermis. View Full-Text
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Fleming, S.B.; Wise, L.M.; Mercer, A.A. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Orf Virus: A Poxvirus That Has Adapted to Skin. Viruses 2015, 7, 1505-1539.
Fleming SB, Wise LM, Mercer AA. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Orf Virus: A Poxvirus That Has Adapted to Skin. Viruses. 2015; 7(3):1505-1539.Chicago/Turabian Style
Fleming, Stephen B.; Wise, Lyn M.; Mercer, Andrew A. 2015. "Molecular Genetic Analysis of Orf Virus: A Poxvirus That Has Adapted to Skin." Viruses 7, no. 3: 1505-1539.