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Viruses 2015, 7(3), 1218-1237; doi:10.3390/v7031218

From Lesions to Viral Clones: Biological and Molecular Diversity amongst Autochthonous Brazilian Vaccinia Virus

1
Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil
2
AQUACEN) Laboratório Nacional Oficial de Referência de Doenças de Animais Aquáticos, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil
3
Laboratório de Retroviroses, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil
4
Centro Agropecuário, Departamento de Ciência Animal, Universidade Federal do Pará, Pará 66075-110, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elliot J. Lefkowitz and Chris Upton
Received: 17 December 2014 / Revised: 5 March 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poxvirus Evolution)
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Abstract

Vaccinia virus (VACV) has had an important role for humanity because of its use during the smallpox eradication campaign. VACV is the etiologic agent of the bovine vaccinia (BV), an emerging zoonosis that has been associated with economic, social, veterinary and public health problems, mainly in Brazil and India. Despite the current and historical VACV importance, there is little information about its circulation, prevalence, origins and maintenance in the environment, natural reservoirs and diversity. Brazilian VACV (VACV-BR) are grouped into at least two groups based on genetic and biological diversity: group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2). In this study, we went to the field and investigated VACV clonal diversity directly from exanthemous lesions, during BV outbreaks. Our results demonstrate that the G1 VACV-BR were more frequently isolated. Furthermore, we were able to co-detect the two variants (G1 and G2) in the same sample. Molecular and biological analysis corroborated previous reports and confirmed the co-circulation of two VACV-BR lineages. The detected G2 clones presented exclusive genetic and biological markers, distinct to reference isolates, including VACV-Western Reserve. Two clones presented a mosaic profile, with both G1 and G2 features based on the molecular analysis of A56R, A26L and C23L genes. Indeed, some SNPs and INDELs in A56R nucleotide sequences were observed among clones of the same virus population, maybe as a result of an increased mutation rate in a mixed population. These results provide information about the diversity profile in VACV populations, highlighting its importance to VACV evolution and maintenance in the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vaccinia virus; clones; diversity; evolution Vaccinia virus; clones; diversity; evolution
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Oliveira, G.; Assis, F.; Almeida, G.; Albarnaz, J.; Lima, M.; Andrade, A.C.; Calixto, R.; Oliveira, C.; Diomedes Neto, J.; Trindade, G.; Ferreira, P.C.; Kroon, E.G.; Abrahão, J. From Lesions to Viral Clones: Biological and Molecular Diversity amongst Autochthonous Brazilian Vaccinia Virus. Viruses 2015, 7, 1218-1237.

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