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Viruses 2015, 7(4), 1726-1803; doi:10.3390/v7041726

The Evolution of Poxvirus Vaccines

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid-28049, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elliot J. Lefkowitz and Chris Upton
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 16 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 7 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poxvirus Evolution)
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Abstract

After Edward Jenner established human vaccination over 200 years ago, attenuated poxviruses became key players to contain the deadliest virus of its own family: Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox. Cowpox virus (CPXV) and horsepox virus (HSPV) were extensively used to this end, passaged in cattle and humans until the appearance of vaccinia virus (VACV), which was used in the final campaigns aimed to eradicate the disease, an endeavor that was accomplished by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980. Ever since, naturally evolved strains used for vaccination were introduced into research laboratories where VACV and other poxviruses with improved safety profiles were generated. Recombinant DNA technology along with the DNA genome features of this virus family allowed the generation of vaccines against heterologous diseases, and the specific insertion and deletion of poxvirus genes generated an even broader spectrum of modified viruses with new properties that increase their immunogenicity and safety profile as vaccine vectors. In this review, we highlight the evolution of poxvirus vaccines, from first generation to the current status, pointing out how different vaccines have emerged and approaches that are being followed up in the development of more rational vaccines against a wide range of diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: poxvirus; evolution; vaccines poxvirus; evolution; vaccines
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez-Sampedro, L.; Perdiguero, B.; Mejías-Pérez, E.; García-Arriaza, J.; Di Pilato, M.; Esteban, M. The Evolution of Poxvirus Vaccines. Viruses 2015, 7, 1726-1803.

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