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Viruses 2014, 6(4), 1483-1501; doi:10.3390/v6041483
Review

Using the Nonhuman Primate Model of HCMV to Guide Vaccine Development

1
 and 2,*
Received: 7 February 2014; in revised form: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 27 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent CMV Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [574 KB, uploaded 27 March 2014]
Abstract: The natural history of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is inextricably associated with mucosal surfaces. The vast preponderance of primary infections occur following mucosal exposure to infectious virions, and the high seroprevalence of HCMV throughout the world is due to long-term excretion of HCMV in bodily fluids from multiple mucosal sites. Accumulating evidence presents a model where the earliest virus-host interactions following infection dictate the long-term pattern of infection, alter innate immune responses that skew adaptive responses to enable persistence within an immune host, and are essential for reinfection of a host with prior immunity. HCMV has evolved a complex repertoire of viral functions fine-tuned to manipulate the immune environment both locally at the sites of infection and systemically within an infected host. Collectively, viral immune modulation represents a significant impediment for an HCMV vaccine. As HCMV can disseminate beyond mucosal surfaces to reinfect immune hosts, it may not matter whether prior immunity results from prior infection or immunization. A better understanding of the earliest virus-hosts interactions at mucosal surfaces may identify elements of the viral proteome that are especially susceptible to vaccine-mediated disruption and prevent challenge virus from disseminating to distal sites, particularly the maternal-fetal interface.
Keywords: cytomegalovirus; nonhuman primate; RhCMV; immune modulation; persistence; vaccine; reinfection cytomegalovirus; nonhuman primate; RhCMV; immune modulation; persistence; vaccine; reinfection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Deere, J.D.; Barry, P.A. Using the Nonhuman Primate Model of HCMV to Guide Vaccine Development. Viruses 2014, 6, 1483-1501.

AMA Style

Deere JD, Barry PA. Using the Nonhuman Primate Model of HCMV to Guide Vaccine Development. Viruses. 2014; 6(4):1483-1501.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deere, Jesse D.; Barry, Peter A. 2014. "Using the Nonhuman Primate Model of HCMV to Guide Vaccine Development." Viruses 6, no. 4: 1483-1501.


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