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Epigenetic Control of Cytomegalovirus Latency and Reactivation
Department of Surgery, Comprehensive Transplant Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 303 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Comprehensive Transplant Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 676 N. St. Clair St, Suite 1900, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2013; in revised form: 19 April 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 23 May 2013
Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) gene expression is repressed in latency due to heterochromatinization of viral genomes. In murine CMV (MCMV) latently infected mice, viral genomes are bound to histones with heterochromatic modifications, to enzymes that mediate these modifications, and to adaptor proteins that may recruit co-repressor complexes. Kinetic analyses of repressor binding show that these repressors are recruited at the earliest time of infection, suggesting that latency may be the default state. Kidney transplantation leads to epigenetic reprogramming of latent viral chromatin and reactivation of immediate early gene expression. Inflammatory signaling pathways, which activate transcription factors that regulate the major immediate early promoter (MIEP), likely mediate the switch in viral chromatin.
Keywords: cytomegalovirus; latency; reactivation; epigenetics; chromatin; intrinsic immunity; transplantation
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MDPI and ACS Style
Liu, X.-F.; Wang, X.; Yan, S.; Zhang, Z.; Abecassis, M.; Hummel, M. Epigenetic Control of Cytomegalovirus Latency and Reactivation. Viruses 2013, 5, 1325-1345.
Liu X-F, Wang X, Yan S, Zhang Z, Abecassis M, Hummel M. Epigenetic Control of Cytomegalovirus Latency and Reactivation. Viruses. 2013; 5(5):1325-1345.
Liu, Xue-feng; Wang, Xueqiong; Yan, Shixian; Zhang, Zheng; Abecassis, Michael; Hummel, Mary. 2013. "Epigenetic Control of Cytomegalovirus Latency and Reactivation." Viruses 5, no. 5: 1325-1345.