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Viruses 2013, 5(5), 1292-1324; doi:10.3390/v5051292
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Hepatitis C Virus, Cholesterol and Lipoproteins — Impact for the Viral Life Cycle and Pathogenesis of Liver Disease

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Received: 18 March 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 27 April 2013 / Published: 23 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protoza)
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Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis C infection associates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism disorders such as hepatic steatosis, hypobetalipoproteinemia, and hypocholesterolemia. Furthermore, virus production is dependent on hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly, and circulating virions are physically associated with lipoproteins in complexes termed lipoviral particles. Evidence has indicated several functional roles for the formation of these complexes, including co-opting of lipoprotein receptors for attachment and entry, concealing epitopes to facilitate immune escape, and hijacking host factors for HCV maturation and secretion. Here, we review the evidence surrounding pathogenesis of the hepatitis C infection regarding lipoprotein engagement, cholesterol and triglyceride regulation, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.
Keywords: Hepatitis C virus; lipoproteins; apolipoproteins; apoE; apoB; cholesterol; triglyceride; viral attachment; entry; assembly; secretion; viral immune escape; lipid disorder Hepatitis C virus; lipoproteins; apolipoproteins; apoE; apoB; cholesterol; triglyceride; viral attachment; entry; assembly; secretion; viral immune escape; lipid disorder
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Felmlee, D.J.; Hafirassou, M.L.; Lefevre, M.; Baumert, T.F.; Schuster, C. Hepatitis C Virus, Cholesterol and Lipoproteins — Impact for the Viral Life Cycle and Pathogenesis of Liver Disease. Viruses 2013, 5, 1292-1324.

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