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HIV-1 Diversity in the Envelope Glycoproteins: Implications for Viral Entry Inhibition
Centro de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CDCT), Fundação Estadual de Produção e Pesquisa em Saúde (FEPPS), Porto Alegre, 90610-000, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2012; in revised form: 24 January 2013 / Accepted: 31 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Abstract: Entry of HIV-1 into a host cell is a multi-step process, with the viral envelope gp120 and gp41 acting sequentially to mediate the viral attachment, CD4 binding, coreceptor binding, and fusion of the viral and host membranes. The emerging class of antiretroviral agents, collectively known as entry inhibitors, interfere in some of these steps. However, viral diversity has implications for possible differential responses to entry inhibitors, since envelope is the most variable of all HIV genes. Different HIV genetic forms carry in their genomes genetic signatures and polymorphisms that could alter the structure of viral proteins which are targeted by drugs, thus impairing antiretroviral binding and efficacy. This review will examine current research that describes subtype differences in envelope at the genetic level and the effects of mutations on the efficacy of current entry inhibitors.
Keywords: HIV-1; entry inhibitors; envelope; diversity
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Araújo, L.A.L.; Almeida, S.E.M. HIV-1 Diversity in the Envelope Glycoproteins: Implications for Viral Entry Inhibition. Viruses 2013, 5, 595-604.
Araújo LAL, Almeida SEM. HIV-1 Diversity in the Envelope Glycoproteins: Implications for Viral Entry Inhibition. Viruses. 2013; 5(2):595-604.
Araújo, Leonardo A.L.; Almeida, Sabrina E.M. 2013. "HIV-1 Diversity in the Envelope Glycoproteins: Implications for Viral Entry Inhibition." Viruses 5, no. 2: 595-604.