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Viruses 2013, 5(1), 241-278; doi:10.3390/v5010241

Arenavirus Variations Due to Host-Specific Adaptation

Institute of Human Virology-School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 11 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arenaviruses)
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Arenavirus particles are enveloped and contain two single-strand RNA genomic segments with ambisense coding. Genetic plasticity of the arenaviruses comes from transcription errors, segment reassortment, and permissive genomic packaging, and results in their remarkable ability, as a group, to infect a wide variety of hosts. In this review, we discuss some in vitro studies of virus genetic and phenotypic variation after exposure to selective pressures such as high viral dose, mutagens and antivirals. Additionally, we discuss the variation in vivo of selected isolates of Old World arenaviruses, particularly after infection of different animal species. We also discuss the recent emergence of new arenaviruses in the context of our observations of sequence variations that appear to be host-specific.
Keywords: arenavirus; LCMV-Clone13; LCMV-Armstrong; Mopeia/Lassa reassortant ML29; mutation; viral population; co-evolution arenavirus; LCMV-Clone13; LCMV-Armstrong; Mopeia/Lassa reassortant ML29; mutation; viral population; co-evolution
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Zapata, J.C.; Salvato, M.S. Arenavirus Variations Due to Host-Specific Adaptation. Viruses 2013, 5, 241-278.

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