Viruses 2012, 4(5), 901-923; doi:10.3390/v4050901
Article

Protective Role of Toll-like Receptor 3-Induced Type I Interferon in Murine Coronavirus Infection of Macrophages

1,2email, 1email, 1email, 1,3email and 1,3,* email
Received: 17 April 2012; in revised form: 12 May 2012 / Accepted: 23 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Arteriviruses and Coronaviruses)
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Abstract: Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) sense viral infections and induce production of type I interferons (IFNs), other cytokines, and chemokines. Viral recognition by TLRs and other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) has been proven to be cell-type specific. Triggering of TLRs with selected ligands can be beneficial against some viral infections. Macrophages are antigen-presenting cells that express TLRs and have a key role in the innate and adaptive immunity against viruses. Coronaviruses (CoVs) are single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that cause acute and chronic infections and can productively infect macrophages. Investigation of the interplay between CoVs and PRRs is in its infancy. We assessed the effect of triggering TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 with selected ligands on the susceptibility of the J774A.1 macrophage cell line to infection with murine coronavirus (mouse hepatitis virus, [MHV]). Stimulation of TLR2, TLR4, or TLR7 did not affect MHV production. In contrast, pre-stimulation of TLR3 with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) hindered MHV infection through induction of IFN-β in macrophages. We demonstrate that activation of TLR3 with the synthetic ligand poly I:C mediates antiviral immunity that diminishes (MHV-A59) or suppresses (MHV-JHM, MHV-3) virus production in macrophages.
Keywords: murine coronavirus; macrophage; TLR; poly I:C; type I IFN; antiviral state
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mazaleuskaya, L.; Veltrop, R.; Ikpeze, N.; Martin-Garcia, J.; Navas-Martin, S. Protective Role of Toll-like Receptor 3-Induced Type I Interferon in Murine Coronavirus Infection of Macrophages. Viruses 2012, 4, 901-923.

AMA Style

Mazaleuskaya L, Veltrop R, Ikpeze N, Martin-Garcia J, Navas-Martin S. Protective Role of Toll-like Receptor 3-Induced Type I Interferon in Murine Coronavirus Infection of Macrophages. Viruses. 2012; 4(5):901-923.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mazaleuskaya, Liudmila; Veltrop, Rogier; Ikpeze, Nneka; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Navas-Martin, Sonia. 2012. "Protective Role of Toll-like Receptor 3-Induced Type I Interferon in Murine Coronavirus Infection of Macrophages." Viruses 4, no. 5: 901-923.


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