Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3701-3730; doi:10.3390/v4123701
Review

Epstein-Barr Virus in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Multiple Sclerosis—Association and Causation

1 Institute of Immunology, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway 2 Norwegian Multiple Sclerosis Competence Centre, Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway 3 Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway 4 Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2012; in revised form: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 7 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in EBV Research)
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Abstract: Epidemiological data suggest that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, it is not clear whether EBV plays a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases, and if so, by which mechanisms the virus may contribute. In this review, we discuss possible viral and immunological mechanisms that might explain associations between EBV and autoimmune diseases and whether these associations represent causes or effects of inflammation and autoimmunity.
Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus; rheumatoid arthritis; multiple sclerosis; Epstein-Barr virus; autoimmunity; B-cells; T-cells

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lossius, A.; Johansen, J.N.; Torkildsen, Ø.; Vartdal, F.; Holmøy, T. Epstein-Barr Virus in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Multiple Sclerosis—Association and Causation. Viruses 2012, 4, 3701-3730.

AMA Style

Lossius A, Johansen JN, Torkildsen Ø, Vartdal F, Holmøy T. Epstein-Barr Virus in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Multiple Sclerosis—Association and Causation. Viruses. 2012; 4(12):3701-3730.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lossius, Andreas; Johansen, Jorunn N.; Torkildsen, Øivind; Vartdal, Frode; Holmøy, Trygve. 2012. "Epstein-Barr Virus in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Multiple Sclerosis—Association and Causation." Viruses 4, no. 12: 3701-3730.

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