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Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3689-3700; doi:10.3390/v4123689
Article

Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E

1,* , 2
, 3
 and 1
Received: 11 October 2012; in revised form: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 November 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives and Challenges in Coronavirus Research)
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Abstract: In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV) was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of spike gene sequences from ACoV and from HCoV-229E isolates recovered over a span of five decades showed the ACoV to be most similar to viruses isolated in the 1960’s to early 1980’s. The true origin of the ACoV is unknown, however a common ancestor between the ACoV and HCoV-229E appears to have existed prior to the 1960’s, suggesting virus transmission, either as a zoonosis or anthroponosis, has occurred between alpacas and humans.
Keywords: alpaca; human; coronavirus; reverse zoonosis; anthroponosis; respiratory; molecular evolution alpaca; human; coronavirus; reverse zoonosis; anthroponosis; respiratory; molecular evolution
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Crossley, B.M.; Mock, R.E.; Callison, S.A.; Hietala, S.K. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E. Viruses 2012, 4, 3689-3700.

AMA Style

Crossley BM, Mock RE, Callison SA, Hietala SK. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E. Viruses. 2012; 4(12):3689-3700.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Crossley, Beate M.; Mock, Richard E.; Callison, Scott A.; Hietala, Sharon K. 2012. "Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E." Viruses 4, no. 12: 3689-3700.


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