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Biogenesis and Dynamics of the Coronavirus Replicative Structures
Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands
Current address: Host-Pathogen Dynamics Group, Federated Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2012; in revised form: 14 November 2012 / Accepted: 15 November 2012 / Published: 21 November 2012
Abstract: Coronaviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses that are important infectious agents of both animals and humans. A common feature among positive-strand RNA viruses is their assembly of replication-transcription complexes in association with cytoplasmic membranes. Upon infection, coronaviruses extensively rearrange cellular membranes into organelle-like replicative structures that consist of double-membrane vesicles and convoluted membranes to which the nonstructural proteins involved in RNA synthesis localize. Double-stranded RNA, presumably functioning as replicative intermediate during viral RNA synthesis, has been detected at the double-membrane vesicle interior. Recent studies have provided new insights into the assembly and functioning of the coronavirus replicative structures. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the biogenesis of the replicative structures, the membrane anchoring of the replication-transcription complexes, and the location of viral RNA synthesis, with particular focus on the dynamics of the coronavirus replicative structures and individual replication-associated proteins.
Keywords: coronavirus; replication complex; nonstructural protein; membrane rearrangements; protein-protein interactions; live cell imaging; dynamics; RNA synthesis
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Hagemeijer, M.C.; Rottier, P.J.; Haan, C.A. Biogenesis and Dynamics of the Coronavirus Replicative Structures. Viruses 2012, 4, 3245-3269.
Hagemeijer MC, Rottier PJ, Haan CA. Biogenesis and Dynamics of the Coronavirus Replicative Structures. Viruses. 2012; 4(11):3245-3269.
Hagemeijer, Marne C.; Rottier, Peter J.; Haan, Cornelis A. 2012. "Biogenesis and Dynamics of the Coronavirus Replicative Structures." Viruses 4, no. 11: 3245-3269.