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Perinatal Lamb Model of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection
Department of Veterinary Pathology, 2738 College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2012; in revised form: 17 October 2012 / Accepted: 18 October 2012 / Published: 23 October 2012
Abstract: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children worldwide. Many animal models are used to study RSV, but most studies investigate disease in adult animals which does not address the unique physiology and immunology that makes infants more susceptible. The perinatal (preterm and term) lamb is a useful model of infant RSV disease as lambs have similar pulmonary structure including airway branching, Clara and type II cells, submucosal glands and Duox/lactoperoxidase (LPO) oxidative system, and prenatal alveologenesis. Lambs can be born preterm (90% gestation) and survive for experimentation although both preterm and term lambs are susceptible to ovine, bovine and human strains of RSV and develop clinical symptoms including fever, tachypnea, and malaise as well as mild to moderate gross and histologic lesions including bronchiolitis with epithelial injury, neutrophil infiltration and syncytial cell formation. RSV disease in preterm lambs is more severe than in term lambs; disease is progressively less in adults and age-dependent susceptibility is a feature similar to humans. Innate and adaptive immune responses by perinatal lambs closely parallel those of infants. The model is used to test therapeutic regimens, risk factors such as maternal ethanol consumption, and formalin inactivated RSV vaccines.
Keywords: airways; bronchiolitis; infants; innate immunity; lambs; lung; ovine; perinatal; premature; preterm; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
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Derscheid, R.J.; Ackermann, M.R. Perinatal Lamb Model of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection. Viruses 2012, 4, 2359-2378.
Derscheid RJ, Ackermann MR. Perinatal Lamb Model of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection. Viruses. 2012; 4(10):2359-2378.
Derscheid, Rachel J.; Ackermann, Mark R. 2012. "Perinatal Lamb Model of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection." Viruses 4, no. 10: 2359-2378.