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Viruses 2012, 4(10), 2379-2399; doi:10.3390/v4102379
Review

Hiding Lipid Presentation: Viral Interference with CD1d-Restricted Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) Cell Activation

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Received: 2 September 2012; in revised form: 12 October 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 23 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Evasion)
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Abstract: The immune system plays a major role in protecting the host against viral infection. Rapid initial protection is conveyed by innate immune cells, while adaptive immunity (including T lymphocytes) requires several days to develop, yet provides high specificity and long-lasting memory. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an unusual subset of T lymphocytes, expressing a semi-invariant T cell receptor together with markers of the innate NK cell lineage. Activated iNKT cells can exert direct cytolysis and can rapidly release a variety of immune-polarizing cytokines, thereby regulating the ensuing adaptive immune response. iNKT cells recognize lipids in the context of the antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. Intriguingly, CD1d-restricted iNKT cells appear to play a critical role in anti-viral defense: increased susceptibility to disseminated viral infections is observed both in patients with iNKT cell deficiency as well as in CD1d- and iNKT cell-deficient mice. Moreover, viruses have recently been found to use sophisticated strategies to withstand iNKT cell-mediated elimination. This review focuses on CD1d-restricted lipid presentation and the strategies viruses deploy to subvert this pathway.
Keywords: CD1d; iNKT cells; immune evasion; viruses; antigen presentation CD1d; iNKT cells; immune evasion; viruses; antigen presentation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Horst, D.; Geerdink, R.J.; Gram, A.M.; Stoppelenburg, A.J.; Ressing, M.E. Hiding Lipid Presentation: Viral Interference with CD1d-Restricted Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) Cell Activation. Viruses 2012, 4, 2379-2399.

AMA Style

Horst D, Geerdink RJ, Gram AM, Stoppelenburg AJ, Ressing ME. Hiding Lipid Presentation: Viral Interference with CD1d-Restricted Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) Cell Activation. Viruses. 2012; 4(10):2379-2399.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Horst, Daniëlle; Geerdink, Ruben J.; Gram, Anna M.; Stoppelenburg, Arie J.; Ressing, Maaike E. 2012. "Hiding Lipid Presentation: Viral Interference with CD1d-Restricted Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) Cell Activation." Viruses 4, no. 10: 2379-2399.



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