Abstract: With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development.
Keywords: recombination; retrovirus; HIV-1
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Delviks-Frankenberry, K.; Galli, A.; Nikolaitchik, O.; Mens, H.; Pathak, V.K.; Hu, W.-S. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination. Viruses 2011, 3, 1650-1680.
Delviks-Frankenberry K, Galli A, Nikolaitchik O, Mens H, Pathak VK, Hu W-S. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination. Viruses. 2011; 3(9):1650-1680.
Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Mens, Helene; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau. 2011. "Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination." Viruses 3, no. 9: 1650-1680.