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Recombination in Eukaryotic Single Stranded DNA Viruses
Computational Biology Group, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 4579, South Africa
UMR CNRS 6578 Anthropologie Bioculturelle, Equipe “Emergence et co-évolution virale”, Etablissement Français du Sang Alpes-Méditerranée, Université de la Méditerranée, 27 Bd. Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France
CIRAD, UMR 53 PVBMT CIRAD-Université de la Réunion, Pôle de Protection des Plantes, Ligne Paradis, 97410, Saint Pierre, La Réunion, France
CIRAD, UMR BGPI, TA A-54/K, Campus International de Montferrier-Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier, France
Electron Microscope Unit, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, South Africa
Biomolecular Interaction Centre, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 June 2011; in revised form: 18 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 September 2011 / Published: 13 September 2011
Abstract: Although single stranded (ss) DNA viruses that infect humans and their domesticated animals do not generally cause major diseases, the arthropod borne ssDNA viruses of plants do, and as a result seriously constrain food production in most temperate regions of the world. Besides the well known plant and animal-infecting ssDNA viruses, it has recently become apparent through metagenomic surveys of ssDNA molecules that there also exist large numbers of other diverse ssDNA viruses within almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments. The host ranges of these viruses probably span the tree of life and they are likely to be important components of global ecosystems. Various lines of evidence suggest that a pivotal evolutionary process during the generation of this global ssDNA virus diversity has probably been genetic recombination. High rates of homologous recombination, non-homologous recombination and genome component reassortment are known to occur within and between various different ssDNA virus species and we look here at the various roles that these different types of recombination may play, both in the day-to-day biology, and in the longer term evolution, of these viruses. We specifically focus on the ecological, biochemical and selective factors underlying patterns of genetic exchange detectable amongst the ssDNA viruses and discuss how these should all be considered when assessing the adaptive value of recombination during ssDNA virus evolution.
Keywords: parvovirus; geminivirus; anellovirus; circovirus; nanovirus
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Martin, D.P.; Biagini, P.; Lefeuvre, P.; Golden, M.; Roumagnac, P.; Varsani, A. Recombination in Eukaryotic Single Stranded DNA Viruses. Viruses 2011, 3, 1699-1738.
Martin DP, Biagini P, Lefeuvre P, Golden M, Roumagnac P, Varsani A. Recombination in Eukaryotic Single Stranded DNA Viruses. Viruses. 2011; 3(9):1699-1738.
Martin, Darren P.; Biagini, Philippe; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Golden, Michael; Roumagnac, Philippe; Varsani, Arvind. 2011. "Recombination in Eukaryotic Single Stranded DNA Viruses." Viruses 3, no. 9: 1699-1738.