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Unconventional Use of LC3 by Coronaviruses through the Alleged Subversion of the ERAD Tuning Pathway
Department of Cell Biology and Institute of Biomembranes, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands
Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Via Vela 6, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, School of Life Sciences, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2011; in revised form: 15 August 2011 / Accepted: 22 August 2011 / Published: 5 September 2011
Abstract: Pathogens of bacterial and viral origin hijack pathways operating in eukaryotic cells in many ways in order to gain access into the host, to establish themselves and to eventually produce their progeny. The detailed molecular characterization of the subversion mechanisms devised by pathogens to infect host cells is crucial to generate targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we review recent data indicating that coronaviruses probably co-opt membranous carriers derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, which contain proteins that regulate disposal of misfolded polypeptides, for their replication. In addition, we also present models describing potential mechanisms that coronaviruses could employ for this hijacking.
Keywords: coronaviruses; nidoviruses; double-membrane vesicles; MHV; SARS-coronavirus; autophagy; EDEMosomes; EDEM1; OS-9; ERAD; ER quality control
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Reggiori, F.; De Haan, C.A.; Molinari, M. Unconventional Use of LC3 by Coronaviruses through the Alleged Subversion of the ERAD Tuning Pathway. Viruses 2011, 3, 1610-1623.
Reggiori F, De Haan CA, Molinari M. Unconventional Use of LC3 by Coronaviruses through the Alleged Subversion of the ERAD Tuning Pathway. Viruses. 2011; 3(9):1610-1623.
Reggiori, Fulvio; De Haan, Cornelis A.M.; Molinari, Maurizio. 2011. "Unconventional Use of LC3 by Coronaviruses through the Alleged Subversion of the ERAD Tuning Pathway." Viruses 3, no. 9: 1610-1623.