Viruses 2011, 3(9), 1532-1548; doi:10.3390/v3091532
Review

Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) and Regulatory T Cells in HTLV-1-Associated Neuroinflammatory Disease

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Received: 2 June 2011; in revised form: 13 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 25 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in HTLV Research)
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Abstract: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that is the causative agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and associated with multiorgan inflammatory disorders, including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and uveitis. HTLV-1-infected T cells have been hypothesized to contribute to the development of these disorders, although the precise mechanisms are not well understood. HTLV-1 primarily infects CD4+ T helper (Th) cells that play a central role in adaptive immune responses. Based on their functions, patterns of cytokine secretion, and expression of specific transcription factors and chemokine receptors, Th cells that are differentiated from naïve CD4+ T cells are classified into four major lineages: Th1, Th2, Th17, and T regulatory (Treg) cells. The CD4+CD25+CCR4+ T cell population, which consists primarily of suppressive T cell subsets, such as the Treg and Th2 subsets in healthy individuals, is the predominant viral reservoir of HTLV-1 in both ATL and HAM/TSP patients. Interestingly, CD4+CD25+CCR4+ T cells become Th1-like cells in HAM/TSP patients, as evidenced by their overproduction of IFN-γ, suggesting that HTLV-1 may intracellularly induce T cell plasticity from Treg to IFN-γ+ T cells. This review examines the recent research into the association between HTLV-1 and Treg cells that has greatly enhanced understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying immune dysregulation in HTLV-1-associated neuroinflammatory disease.
Keywords: HTLV-1; HAM/TSP; ATL; CD4+CD25+CCR4+ T cell; regulatory T cell; exFoxp3+ cell; inflammation; immune-dysfunction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Araya, N.; Sato, T.; Yagishita, N.; Ando, H.; Utsunomiya, A.; Jacobson, S.; Yamano, Y. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) and Regulatory T Cells in HTLV-1-Associated Neuroinflammatory Disease. Viruses 2011, 3, 1532-1548.

AMA Style

Araya N, Sato T, Yagishita N, Ando H, Utsunomiya A, Jacobson S, Yamano Y. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) and Regulatory T Cells in HTLV-1-Associated Neuroinflammatory Disease. Viruses. 2011; 3(9):1532-1548.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Araya, Natsumi; Sato, Tomoo; Yagishita, Naoko; Ando, Hitoshi; Utsunomiya, Atae; Jacobson, Steven; Yamano, Yoshihisa. 2011. "Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) and Regulatory T Cells in HTLV-1-Associated Neuroinflammatory Disease." Viruses 3, no. 9: 1532-1548.


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