Next Article in Journal
HTLV-3/STLV-3 and HTLV-4 Viruses: Discovery, Epidemiology, Serology and Molecular Aspects
Next Article in Special Issue
Intracellular Events and Cell Fate in Filovirus Infection
Previous Article in Journal
C7a, a Biphosphinic Cyclopalladated Compound, Efficiently Controls the Development of a Patient-Derived Xenograft Model of Adult T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma
Previous Article in Special Issue
Correlates of Immunity to Filovirus Infection
Viruses 2011, 3(7), 1059-1073; doi:10.3390/v3071059
Review

T Cells and Pathogenesis of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

*  and
Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2011 / Revised: 30 June 2011 / Accepted: 1 July 2011 / Published: 6 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Emerging and Re-Emerging RNA Viruses)
Download PDF [214 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]

Abstract

We previously hypothesized that increased capillary permeability observed in both hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) may be caused by hantavirus-specific cytotoxic T cells attacking endothelial cells presenting viral antigens on their surface based on clinical observations and in vitro experiments. In HCPS, hantavirus-specific T cell responses positively correlated with disease severity. In HFRS, in one report, contrary to HCPS, T cell responses negatively correlated with disease severity, but in another report the number of regulatory T cells, which are thought to suppress T cell responses, negatively correlated with disease severity. In rat experiments, in which hantavirus causes persistent infection, depletion of regulatory T cells helped infected rats clear virus without inducing immunopathology. These seemingly contradictory findings may suggest delicate balance in T cell responses between protection and immunopathogenesis. Both too strong and too weak T cell responses may lead to severe disease. It is important to clarify the role of T cells in these diseases for better treatment (whether to suppress T cell functions) and protection (vaccine design) which may need to take into account viral factors and the influence of HLA on T cell responses.
Keywords: hantavirus; hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; immunopathogenesis; CD8+ T cell; regulatory T cell; endothelial cell hantavirus; hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; immunopathogenesis; CD8+ T cell; regulatory T cell; endothelial cell
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

Terajima, M.; Ennis, F.A. T Cells and Pathogenesis of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome. Viruses 2011, 3, 1059-1073.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert