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Pattern Recognition Receptors and the Innate Immune Response to Viral Infection
Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2011; in revised form: 27 May 2011 / Accepted: 2 June 2011 / Published: 23 June 2011
Abstract: The innate immune response to viral pathogens is critical in order to mobilize protective immunity. Cells of the innate immune system detect viral infection largely through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) present either on the cell surface or within distinct intracellular compartments. These include the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the retinoic acid-inducble gene I-like receptors (RLRs), the nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs, also called NACHT, LRR and PYD domain proteins) and cytosolic DNA sensors. While in certain cases viral proteins are the trigger of these receptors, the predominant viral activators are nucleic acids. The presence of viral sensing PRRs in multiple cellular compartments allows innate cells to recognize and quickly respond to a broad range of viruses, which replicate in different cellular compartments. Here, we review the role of PRRs and associated signaling pathways in detecting viral pathogens in order to evoke production of interferons and cytokines. By highlighting recent progress in these areas, we hope to convey a greater understanding of how viruses activate PRR signaling and how this interaction shapes the anti-viral immune response.
Keywords: pattern recognition receptor; toll like receptor; nod like receptor; AIM2 like receptor; RIG-I like receptor; cytosolic DNA sensor; inflammasome; interferon; virus
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Thompson, M.R.; Kaminski, J.J.; Kurt-Jones, E.A.; Fitzgerald, K.A. Pattern Recognition Receptors and the Innate Immune Response to Viral Infection. Viruses 2011, 3, 920-940.
Thompson MR, Kaminski JJ, Kurt-Jones EA, Fitzgerald KA. Pattern Recognition Receptors and the Innate Immune Response to Viral Infection. Viruses. 2011; 3(6):920-940.
Thompson, Mikayla R.; Kaminski, John J.; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A. 2011. "Pattern Recognition Receptors and the Innate Immune Response to Viral Infection." Viruses 3, no. 6: 920-940.