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Viruses 2018, 10(5), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050224

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Baicalein on Polyinosinic–Polycytidylic Acid-Induced RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages

College of Korean Medicine, Gachon University, Seong-Nam 13120, Korea
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Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokine Responses in Viral Infections)
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Abstract

Baicalein (3,3′,4′,5,6-pentahydroxyflavone) is a well-known antioxidant found in many plants, such as in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis. In this study, we evaluate the inhibitory effect of baicalein on the inflammatory cascade in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages induced by viral-like material. Experimental assays used in this study included Griess reagent assay for nitric oxide (NO) production, Fluo-4 assay for intracellular calcium release, multiplex cytokine assay, and quantitative real time RT-PCR assay. To induce inflammation, RAW 264.7 cells were treated with polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Baicalein at concentrations up to 100 μM significantly inhibited the production of NO, IL-1α, IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, VEGF, MCP-1, IP-10, LIX, and RANTES as well as calcium release in RAW 264.7 cells induced by poly I:C (50 µg/mL) (all p < 0.05). Baicalein at concentrations up to 50 μM also significantly inhibited mRNA expression of STAT1, STAT3, CHOP, and Fas in poly I:C-induced RAW 264.7 cells (p < 0.05). In conclusion, baicalein has anti-inflammatory effect in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced macrophages by inhibiting NO, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors via the endoplasmic reticulum stress–CHOP/STAT pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: baicalein; dsRNA; inflammation; macrophages; nitric oxide; cytokine; calcium; STAT; CHOP baicalein; dsRNA; inflammation; macrophages; nitric oxide; cytokine; calcium; STAT; CHOP
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Lee, J.Y.; Kim, D.-H.; Kang, M.S.; Park, W. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Baicalein on Polyinosinic–Polycytidylic Acid-Induced RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages. Viruses 2018, 10, 224.

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