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Viruses 2018, 10(5), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050225

Paneth Cells during Viral Infection and Pathogenesis

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Box 357735, 1705 NE Pacific St., Seattle, WA 98195, USA
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Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses–Bacteria Interactions in the Gut)
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Abstract

Paneth cells are major secretory cells located in the crypts of Lieberkühn in the small intestine. Our understanding of the diverse roles that Paneth cells play in homeostasis and disease has grown substantially since their discovery over a hundred years ago. Classically, Paneth cells have been characterized as a significant source of antimicrobial peptides and proteins important in host defense and shaping the composition of the commensal microbiota. More recently, Paneth cells have been shown to supply key developmental and homeostatic signals to intestinal stem cells in the crypt base. Paneth cell dysfunction leading to dysbiosis and a compromised epithelial barrier have been implicated in the etiology of Crohn’s disease and susceptibility to enteric bacterial infection. Our understanding of the impact of Paneth cells on viral infection is incomplete. Enteric α-defensins, produced by Paneth cells, can directly alter viral infection. In addition, α-defensins and other antimicrobial Paneth cell products may modulate viral infection indirectly by impacting the microbiome. Here, we discuss recent insights into Paneth cell biology, models to study their function, and the impact, both direct and indirect, of Paneth cells on enteric viral infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Paneth cell; defensin; virus; regulated secretion; dense core vesicles Paneth cell; defensin; virus; regulated secretion; dense core vesicles
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Holly, M.K.; Smith, J.G. Paneth Cells during Viral Infection and Pathogenesis. Viruses 2018, 10, 225.

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