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Viruses 2018, 10(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020090

Oncotargeting by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV): Advances in Cancer Therapy

1
Discipline of Bioscience and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore, MP 453 552, India
2
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neurosciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68130, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Modern oncotherapy approaches are based on inducing controlled apoptosis in tumor cells. Although a number of apoptosis-induction approaches are available, site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents still remain the biggest hurdle in achieving the desired cancer treatment benefit. Additionally, systemic treatment-induced toxicity remains a major limiting factor in chemotherapy. To specifically address drug-accessibility and chemotherapy side effects, oncolytic virotherapy (OV) has emerged as a novel cancer treatment alternative. In OV, recombinant viruses with higher replication capacity and stronger lytic properties are being considered for tumor cell-targeting and subsequent cell lysing. Successful application of OVs lies in achieving strict tumor-specific tropism called oncotropism, which is contingent upon the biophysical interactions of tumor cell surface receptors with viral receptors and subsequent replication of oncolytic viruses in cancer cells. In this direction, few viral vector platforms have been developed and some of these have entered pre-clinical/clinical trials. Among these, the Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based platform shows high promise, as it is not pathogenic to humans. Further, modern molecular biology techniques such as reverse genetics tools have favorably advanced this field by creating efficient recombinant VSVs for OV; some have entered into clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the current status of VSV based oncotherapy, challenges, and future perspectives regarding its therapeutic applications in the cancer treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: oncolytic virus; vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV); oncotherapy; tumor lysis; apoptosis oncolytic virus; vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV); oncotherapy; tumor lysis; apoptosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Bishnoi, S.; Tiwari, R.; Gupta, S.; Byrareddy, S.N.; Nayak, D. Oncotargeting by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV): Advances in Cancer Therapy. Viruses 2018, 10, 90.

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