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Viruses 2018, 10(2), 89; doi:10.3390/v10020089

The Alphavirus Exit Pathway: What We Know and What We Wish We Knew

Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alphavirus Research)
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Alphaviruses are enveloped positive sense RNA viruses and include serious human pathogens, such as the encephalitic alphaviruses and Chikungunya virus. Alphaviruses are transmitted to humans primarily by mosquito vectors and include species that are classified as emerging pathogens. Alphaviruses assemble highly organized, spherical particles that bud from the plasma membrane. In this review, we discuss what is known about the alphavirus exit pathway during a cellular infection. We describe the viral protein interactions that are critical for virus assembly/budding and the host factors that are involved, and we highlight the recent discovery of cell-to-cell transmission of alphavirus particles via intercellular extensions. Lastly, we discuss outstanding questions in the alphavirus exit pathway that may provide important avenues for future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: alphavirus; assembly; budding; cell-to-cell transmission; intercellular extensions alphavirus; assembly; budding; cell-to-cell transmission; intercellular extensions

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Brown, R.S.; Wan, J.J.; Kielian, M. The Alphavirus Exit Pathway: What We Know and What We Wish We Knew. Viruses 2018, 10, 89.

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