Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Viruses, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Mammarenaviruses naturally induce infection when ingested. None the less, the role of intestinal [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-48
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Development and Validation of a Novel Dual Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay to Quantify Ebola Virus VP24 Inhibition of IFN Signaling
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020098
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
PDF Full-text (2186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interferon (IFN) system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Evasion of IFN signaling by Ebola viral protein 24 (VP24) is a critical event in the pathogenesis of the infection and, hence, VP24 is a potential target for drug development.
[...] Read more.
The interferon (IFN) system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Evasion of IFN signaling by Ebola viral protein 24 (VP24) is a critical event in the pathogenesis of the infection and, hence, VP24 is a potential target for drug development. Since no drugs target VP24, the identification of molecules able to inhibit VP24, restoring and possibly enhancing the IFN response, is a goal of concern. Accordingly, we developed a dual signal firefly and Renilla luciferase cell-based drug screening assay able to quantify IFN-mediated induction of Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) and its inhibition by VP24. Human Embryonic Kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells were transiently transfected with a luciferase reporter gene construct driven by the promoter of ISGs, Interferon-Stimulated Response Element (ISRE). Stimulation of cells with IFN-α activated the IFN cascade leading to the expression of ISRE. Cotransfection of cells with a plasmid expressing VP24 cloned from a virus isolated during the last 2014 outbreak led to the inhibition of ISRE transcription, quantified by a luminescent signal. To adapt this system to test a large number of compounds, we performed it in 96-well plates; optimized the assay analyzing different parameters; and validated the system by calculating the Z′- and Z-factor, which showed values of 0.62 and 0.53 for IFN-α stimulation assay and VP24 inhibition assay, respectively, indicative of robust assay performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and Cuevavirus Research)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Fowl Adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4)-Based Infectious Clone for Vaccine Vector Development and Viral Gene Function Studies
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020097
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
PDF Full-text (2455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4) is associated with economically important poultry diseases. Recent studies of fully sequenced genomes of FAdV-4 isolates suggest potential genomic regions associated with virulence and amenable for manipulation and vector development. Direct manipulation of viral genomes is cumbersome, as opposed
[...] Read more.
Fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4) is associated with economically important poultry diseases. Recent studies of fully sequenced genomes of FAdV-4 isolates suggest potential genomic regions associated with virulence and amenable for manipulation and vector development. Direct manipulation of viral genomes is cumbersome, as opposed to that of infectious clones—viral genomes cloned into plasmid or cosmid vectors. In this work, we generated an infectious clone, pFAdV-4 ON1, containing the entire viral genome of a nonpathogenic FAdV-4 (ON1 isolate). pFAdV-4 ON1 was used for targeted deletion of open reading frames (ORFs) 16 and 17 and replacement with the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) expression cassette to generate recombinant viruses. These viruses were viable, and EGFP was expressed in infected cells. Their replication, however, was significantly reduced with respect to that of the wild-type virus. These observations suggest the potential utility of FAdV-4 as a vaccine vector and the importance of ORFs 16 and 17 for virus replication at wild-type levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an infectious clone based on the FAdV-4 genome, and our results demonstrate its utility for studies of virulence determinants and as a platform for either vaccine or gene delivery vectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Figures

Figure 1a

Open AccessReview The Interactions between Host Glycobiology, Bacterial Microbiota, and Viruses in the Gut
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020096
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
PDF Full-text (1389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are the major etiological agents of viral acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Host genetic factors, the histo-blood group antigens (HBGA), are associated with RV and NoV susceptibility and recent findings additionally point to HBGA as a factor modulating the intestinal
[...] Read more.
Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are the major etiological agents of viral acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Host genetic factors, the histo-blood group antigens (HBGA), are associated with RV and NoV susceptibility and recent findings additionally point to HBGA as a factor modulating the intestinal microbial composition. In vitro and in vivo experiments in animal models established that the microbiota enhances RV and NoV infection, uncovering a triangular interplay between RV and NoV, host glycobiology, and the intestinal microbiota that ultimately influences viral infectivity. Studies on the microbiota composition in individuals displaying different RV and NoV susceptibilities allowed the identification of potential bacterial biomarkers, although mechanistic data on the virus–host–microbiota relation are still needed. The identification of the bacterial and HBGA interactions that are exploited by RV and NoV would place the intestinal microbiota as a new target for alternative therapies aimed at preventing and treating viral gastroenteritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses–Bacteria Interactions in the Gut)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Fluorescent Cell-Based System for Imaging Zika Virus Infection in Real-Time
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020095
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
PDF Full-text (5614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging flavivirus that is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito or through sexual contact with an infected partner. ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been associated with numerous fetal abnormalities, including prenatal lethality and microcephaly.
[...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging flavivirus that is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito or through sexual contact with an infected partner. ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been associated with numerous fetal abnormalities, including prenatal lethality and microcephaly. However, until recent outbreaks in the Americas, ZIKV has been relatively understudied, and therefore the biology and pathogenesis of ZIKV infection remain incompletely understood. Better methods to study ZIKV infection in live cells could enhance our understanding of the biology of ZIKV and the mechanisms by which ZIKV contributes to fetal abnormalities. To this end, we developed a fluorescent cell-based reporter system allowing for live imaging of ZIKV-infected cells. This system utilizes the protease activity of the ZIKV non-structural proteins 2B and 3 (NS2B-NS3) to specifically mark virus-infected cells. Here, we demonstrate the utility of this fluorescent reporter for identifying cells infected by ZIKV strains of two lineages. Further, we use this system to determine that apoptosis is induced in cells directly infected with ZIKV in a cell-autonomous manner. Ultimately, approaches that can directly track ZIKV-infected cells at the single cell-level have the potential to yield new insights into the host-pathogen interactions that regulate ZIKV infection and pathogenesis. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEditorial Expert Views on HPV Infection
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020094
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expert Views on HPV Infection) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview MERS-CoV: Understanding the Latest Human Coronavirus Threat
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020093
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human coronaviruses cause both upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans. In 2012, a sixth human coronavirus (hCoV) was isolated from a patient presenting with severe respiratory illness. The 60-year-old man died as a result of renal and respiratory failure after admission
[...] Read more.
Human coronaviruses cause both upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans. In 2012, a sixth human coronavirus (hCoV) was isolated from a patient presenting with severe respiratory illness. The 60-year-old man died as a result of renal and respiratory failure after admission to a hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The aetiological agent was eventually identified as a coronavirus and designated Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS-CoV has now been reported in more than 27 countries across the Middle East, Europe, North Africa and Asia. As of July 2017, 2040 MERS-CoV laboratory confirmed cases, resulting in 712 deaths, were reported globally, with a majority of these cases from the Arabian Peninsula. This review summarises the current understanding of MERS-CoV, with special reference to the (i) genome structure; (ii) clinical features; (iii) diagnosis of infection; and (iv) treatment and vaccine development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Infection and Transport of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Neurons: Role of the Cytoskeleton
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020092
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neuroinvasive human pathogen that has the ability to infect and replicate within epithelial cells and neurons and establish a life-long latent infection in sensory neurons. HSV-1 depends on the host cellular cytoskeleton for entry, replication,
[...] Read more.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neuroinvasive human pathogen that has the ability to infect and replicate within epithelial cells and neurons and establish a life-long latent infection in sensory neurons. HSV-1 depends on the host cellular cytoskeleton for entry, replication, and exit. Therefore, HSV-1 has adapted mechanisms to promote its survival by exploiting the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons to direct its active transport, infection, and spread between neurons and epithelial cells during primary and recurrent infections. This review will focus on the currently known mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to harness the neuronal cytoskeleton, molecular motors, and the secretory and exocytic pathways for efficient virus entry, axonal transport, replication, assembly, and exit from the distinct functional compartments (cell body and axon) of the highly polarized sensory neurons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytoskeleton in Virus Infections)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Pharmacological Inhibition of Protein Kinase C Reduces West Nile Virus Replication
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020091
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
PDF Full-text (6562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flaviviruses are relevant animal and human pathogens that include West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, or Zika virus, among others. Currently, no licensed therapy is available to fight flaviviral infections. Protein kinases C (PKCs) constitute a family of multifunctional lipid-dependent
[...] Read more.
Flaviviruses are relevant animal and human pathogens that include West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, or Zika virus, among others. Currently, no licensed therapy is available to fight flaviviral infections. Protein kinases C (PKCs) constitute a family of multifunctional lipid-dependent isoenzymes that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes (apoptosis, differentiation, proliferation, cellular transformation, motility, adhesion, etc.) being currently considered at the front line of drug development for the treatment of diverse human disorders. PKCs have also been implicated in different steps during viral replication; however, nowadays, results regarding their role in flavivirus replication are controversial. Here we demonstrate that calphostin C and chelerythrine, two broad-PKC inhibitors that target conventional, novel and atypical PKCs, significantly inhibit WNV multiplication in cell culture without affecting cell viability. A reduction of viral yields was observed in treated cells when compared with mock-treated cells. Likewise, immunofluorescence detection of viral enveloped E protein was reduced in treated cells, as was the amount of viral RNA released to the supernatant, mainly in those treated with chelerythrine. On the other hand, two PKC inhibitors specific for conventional and novel isoforms (staurosporine and enzastaurine) did not show any significant effect in WNV multiplication. These results suggested that PKCs, more probably atypical PKCs, are likely involved in WNV multiplication, although both broad-spectrum tested drugs seem to act through different mechanisms, and point to them as potential antiviral candidates for WNV, as well as for other related flaviviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Oncotargeting by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV): Advances in Cancer Therapy
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020090
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
PDF Full-text (999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Modern oncotherapy approaches are based on inducing controlled apoptosis in tumor cells. Although a number of apoptosis-induction approaches are available, site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents still remain the biggest hurdle in achieving the desired cancer treatment benefit. Additionally, systemic treatment-induced toxicity remains a
[...] Read more.
Modern oncotherapy approaches are based on inducing controlled apoptosis in tumor cells. Although a number of apoptosis-induction approaches are available, site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents still remain the biggest hurdle in achieving the desired cancer treatment benefit. Additionally, systemic treatment-induced toxicity remains a major limiting factor in chemotherapy. To specifically address drug-accessibility and chemotherapy side effects, oncolytic virotherapy (OV) has emerged as a novel cancer treatment alternative. In OV, recombinant viruses with higher replication capacity and stronger lytic properties are being considered for tumor cell-targeting and subsequent cell lysing. Successful application of OVs lies in achieving strict tumor-specific tropism called oncotropism, which is contingent upon the biophysical interactions of tumor cell surface receptors with viral receptors and subsequent replication of oncolytic viruses in cancer cells. In this direction, few viral vector platforms have been developed and some of these have entered pre-clinical/clinical trials. Among these, the Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based platform shows high promise, as it is not pathogenic to humans. Further, modern molecular biology techniques such as reverse genetics tools have favorably advanced this field by creating efficient recombinant VSVs for OV; some have entered into clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the current status of VSV based oncotherapy, challenges, and future perspectives regarding its therapeutic applications in the cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview The Alphavirus Exit Pathway: What We Know and What We Wish We Knew
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020089
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
PDF Full-text (1527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alphaviruses are enveloped positive sense RNA viruses and include serious human pathogens, such as the encephalitic alphaviruses and Chikungunya virus. Alphaviruses are transmitted to humans primarily by mosquito vectors and include species that are classified as emerging pathogens. Alphaviruses assemble highly organized, spherical
[...] Read more.
Alphaviruses are enveloped positive sense RNA viruses and include serious human pathogens, such as the encephalitic alphaviruses and Chikungunya virus. Alphaviruses are transmitted to humans primarily by mosquito vectors and include species that are classified as emerging pathogens. Alphaviruses assemble highly organized, spherical particles that bud from the plasma membrane. In this review, we discuss what is known about the alphavirus exit pathway during a cellular infection. We describe the viral protein interactions that are critical for virus assembly/budding and the host factors that are involved, and we highlight the recent discovery of cell-to-cell transmission of alphavirus particles via intercellular extensions. Lastly, we discuss outstanding questions in the alphavirus exit pathway that may provide important avenues for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alphavirus Research)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Spindle-E Acts Antivirally Against Alphaviruses in Mosquito Cells
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020088
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 18 February 2018
PDF Full-text (2456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mosquitoes transmit several human- and animal-pathogenic alphaviruses (Togaviridae family). In alphavirus-infected mosquito cells two different types of virus-specific small RNAs are produced as part of the RNA interference response: short-interfering (si)RNAs and PIWI-interacting (pi)RNAs. The siRNA pathway is generally thought to be
[...] Read more.
Mosquitoes transmit several human- and animal-pathogenic alphaviruses (Togaviridae family). In alphavirus-infected mosquito cells two different types of virus-specific small RNAs are produced as part of the RNA interference response: short-interfering (si)RNAs and PIWI-interacting (pi)RNAs. The siRNA pathway is generally thought to be the main antiviral pathway. Although an antiviral activity has been suggested for the piRNA pathway its role in host defences is not clear. Knock down of key proteins of the piRNA pathway (Ago3 and Piwi5) in Aedes aegypti-derived cells reduced the production of alphavirus chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-specific piRNAs but had no effect on virus replication. In contrast, knock down of the siRNA pathway key protein Ago2 resulted in an increase in virus replication. Similar results were obtained when expression of Piwi4 was silenced. Knock down of the helicase Spindle-E (SpnE), an essential co-factor of the piRNA pathway in Drosophila melanogaster, resulted in increased virus replication indicating that SpnE acts as an antiviral against alphaviruses such as CHIKV and the related Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Surprisingly, this effect was found to be independent of the siRNA and piRNA pathways in Ae. aegypti cells and specific for alphaviruses. This suggests a small RNA-independent antiviral function for this protein in mosquitoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alphavirus Research)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Survey on West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Horses and Birds in Poland
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020087
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
PDF Full-text (2790 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are members of the family Flaviviridae which, natural life cycles involve mosquito–bird–mosquito transmission. Both represent emerging viruses in Europe with potential to cause neuroinvasive disease in humans. This study investigates the seroprevalence of serum neutralizing
[...] Read more.
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are members of the family Flaviviridae which, natural life cycles involve mosquito–bird–mosquito transmission. Both represent emerging viruses in Europe with potential to cause neuroinvasive disease in humans. This study investigates the seroprevalence of serum neutralizing antibodies to WNV and to USUV in birds and in horses in Poland. Antibodies against WNV and USUV were detected in 5 (35.7%) and in 1 (7.14%) of 14 birds and in 62 (15.08%) and in 115 (27.98%) of 411 horses, respectively. Twenty-one WNV serologically positive horses (33.87%) and 67 USUV serologically positive horses (58.26%) did not travel outside Polish borders. Given the high abundance of potentially competent mosquito species in Poland, high populations of horses and different bird species, our findings highlight implementation of active control programs, including monitoring of geographic spread and dynamics of WNV and USUV transmission in both primary and accidental hosts. It is also important to improve public health awareness about the disease these viruses may cause. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication Chondrocytes Contribute to Alphaviral Disease Pathogenesis as a Source of Virus Replication and Soluble Factor Production
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020086
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3840 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Arthritogenic alphavirus infections often result in debilitating musculoskeletal disorders that affect the joints, muscle, and bone. In order to evaluate the infection profile of primary human skeletal muscle and chondrocyte cells to Ross River virus (RRV) in vitro, cells were infected at a
[...] Read more.
Arthritogenic alphavirus infections often result in debilitating musculoskeletal disorders that affect the joints, muscle, and bone. In order to evaluate the infection profile of primary human skeletal muscle and chondrocyte cells to Ross River virus (RRV) in vitro, cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 over a period of two days. Viral titers were determined by plaque assay and cytokine expression by Bio-Plex® assays using the supernatants harvested. Gene expression studies were conducted using total RNA isolated from cells. Firstly, we show that RRV RNA is detected in chondrocytes from infected mice in vivo. Both human primary skeletal muscle and chondrocyte cells are able to support productive RRV infection in vitro. We also report the production of soluble host factors including the upregulation of heparanase (HPSE) and inflammatory host factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which are also present during clinical disease in humans. Our study is the first to demonstrate that human chondrocyte cells are permissive to RRV infection, support the production of infectious virus, and produce soluble factors including HPSE, which may contribute to joint degradation and the pathogenesis of disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alphavirus Research)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview The Microbial Zoo in the C. elegans Intestine: Bacteria, Fungi and Viruses
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020085
Received: 7 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
PDF Full-text (792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
C. elegans is an invaluable model organism that has been a driving force in many fundamental biological discoveries. However, it is only in the past two decades that it has been applied to host–pathogen interaction studies. These studies have been facilitated by the
[...] Read more.
C. elegans is an invaluable model organism that has been a driving force in many fundamental biological discoveries. However, it is only in the past two decades that it has been applied to host–pathogen interaction studies. These studies have been facilitated by the discoveries of natural microbes that infect C. elegans, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Notably, many of these microbes share a common site of infection, the C. elegans intestine. Furthermore, the recent descriptions of a natural gut microbiota in C. elegans raise the possibility that this could be a novel model system for microbiome and trans-kingdom interaction studies. Here we review studies of C. elegans host–microbe interactions with a particular focus on the intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses–Bacteria Interactions in the Gut)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Mosquitoes as Suitable Vectors for Alphaviruses
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020084
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 14 February 2018
PDF Full-text (1315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. There are several tissue barriers of the mosquito that the virus must overcome in order
[...] Read more.
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. There are several tissue barriers of the mosquito that the virus must overcome in order to establish a productive infection. Of importance are the midgut, basal lamina and the salivary glands. Infection of the salivary glands is crucial for virus transmission during the mosquito’s subsequent bloodfeed. Other factors that may contribute to vector competence include the microflora and parasites present in the mosquito, environmental conditions, the molecular determinants of the virus to adapt to the vector, as well as the effect of co-infection with other viruses. Though mosquito innate immunity is a contributing factor to vector competence, it will not be discussed in this review. Detailed understanding of these factors will be instrumental in minimising transmission of alphaviral diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alphavirus Research)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top