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Viruses 2018, 10(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020091

Pharmacological Inhibition of Protein Kinase C Reduces West Nile Virus Replication

Department of Biotechnology, INIA, Ctra. Coruña Km. 7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Flaviviruses are relevant animal and human pathogens that include West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, or Zika virus, among others. Currently, no licensed therapy is available to fight flaviviral infections. Protein kinases C (PKCs) constitute a family of multifunctional lipid-dependent isoenzymes that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes (apoptosis, differentiation, proliferation, cellular transformation, motility, adhesion, etc.) being currently considered at the front line of drug development for the treatment of diverse human disorders. PKCs have also been implicated in different steps during viral replication; however, nowadays, results regarding their role in flavivirus replication are controversial. Here we demonstrate that calphostin C and chelerythrine, two broad-PKC inhibitors that target conventional, novel and atypical PKCs, significantly inhibit WNV multiplication in cell culture without affecting cell viability. A reduction of viral yields was observed in treated cells when compared with mock-treated cells. Likewise, immunofluorescence detection of viral enveloped E protein was reduced in treated cells, as was the amount of viral RNA released to the supernatant, mainly in those treated with chelerythrine. On the other hand, two PKC inhibitors specific for conventional and novel isoforms (staurosporine and enzastaurine) did not show any significant effect in WNV multiplication. These results suggested that PKCs, more probably atypical PKCs, are likely involved in WNV multiplication, although both broad-spectrum tested drugs seem to act through different mechanisms, and point to them as potential antiviral candidates for WNV, as well as for other related flaviviruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile virus; viral replication; protein kinase C West Nile virus; viral replication; protein kinase C
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Blázquez, A.B.; Vázquez-Calvo, Á.; Martín-Acebes, M.A.; Saiz, J.-C. Pharmacological Inhibition of Protein Kinase C Reduces West Nile Virus Replication. Viruses 2018, 10, 91.

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