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Viruses 2018, 10(2), 86; doi:10.3390/v10020086

Chondrocytes Contribute to Alphaviral Disease Pathogenesis as a Source of Virus Replication and Soluble Factor Production

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Southport, QLD 4215, Australia
School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Southport, QLD 4215, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alphavirus Research)
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Arthritogenic alphavirus infections often result in debilitating musculoskeletal disorders that affect the joints, muscle, and bone. In order to evaluate the infection profile of primary human skeletal muscle and chondrocyte cells to Ross River virus (RRV) in vitro, cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 over a period of two days. Viral titers were determined by plaque assay and cytokine expression by Bio-Plex® assays using the supernatants harvested. Gene expression studies were conducted using total RNA isolated from cells. Firstly, we show that RRV RNA is detected in chondrocytes from infected mice in vivo. Both human primary skeletal muscle and chondrocyte cells are able to support productive RRV infection in vitro. We also report the production of soluble host factors including the upregulation of heparanase (HPSE) and inflammatory host factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which are also present during clinical disease in humans. Our study is the first to demonstrate that human chondrocyte cells are permissive to RRV infection, support the production of infectious virus, and produce soluble factors including HPSE, which may contribute to joint degradation and the pathogenesis of disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: cartilage degradation; viral arthritis; inflammatory disease cartilage degradation; viral arthritis; inflammatory disease

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lim, E.X.Y.; Supramaniam, A.; Lui, H.; Coles, P.; Lee, W.S.; Liu, X.; Rudd, P.A.; Herrero, L.J. Chondrocytes Contribute to Alphaviral Disease Pathogenesis as a Source of Virus Replication and Soluble Factor Production. Viruses 2018, 10, 86.

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