Next Article in Journal
Spindle-E Acts Antivirally Against Alphaviruses in Mosquito Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Chondrocytes Contribute to Alphaviral Disease Pathogenesis as a Source of Virus Replication and Soluble Factor Production
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2018, 10(2), 87; doi:10.3390/v10020087

A Survey on West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Horses and Birds in Poland

Department of Pathology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-375 Wroclaw, Poland
National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
The Wild Animal and Bird of Prey Breeding and Protection Center (ZYS Foundation), 54-530 Wroclaw, Poland
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine with Dentistry Division in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, 40-055 Katowice, Poland
Department of Reproduction and Clinic of Farm Animals, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-375 Wroclaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2790 KB, uploaded 23 February 2018]   |  


West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are members of the family Flaviviridae which, natural life cycles involve mosquito–bird–mosquito transmission. Both represent emerging viruses in Europe with potential to cause neuroinvasive disease in humans. This study investigates the seroprevalence of serum neutralizing antibodies to WNV and to USUV in birds and in horses in Poland. Antibodies against WNV and USUV were detected in 5 (35.7%) and in 1 (7.14%) of 14 birds and in 62 (15.08%) and in 115 (27.98%) of 411 horses, respectively. Twenty-one WNV serologically positive horses (33.87%) and 67 USUV serologically positive horses (58.26%) did not travel outside Polish borders. Given the high abundance of potentially competent mosquito species in Poland, high populations of horses and different bird species, our findings highlight implementation of active control programs, including monitoring of geographic spread and dynamics of WNV and USUV transmission in both primary and accidental hosts. It is also important to improve public health awareness about the disease these viruses may cause. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile virus; Usutu virus; antibody; Poland; horses; birds West Nile virus; Usutu virus; antibody; Poland; horses; birds

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bażanów, B.; Jansen van Vuren, P.; Szymański, P.; Stygar, D.; Frącka, A.; Twardoń, J.; Kozdrowski, R.; Pawęska, J.T. A Survey on West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Horses and Birds in Poland. Viruses 2018, 10, 87.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top