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Viruses 2009, 1(3), 1137-1165; doi:10.3390/v1031137
Review

Mutation Rates and Intrinsic Fidelity of Retroviral Reverse Transcriptases

Centro de Biología Molecular “Severo Ochoa” [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) & Universidad Autónoma de Madrid], Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Received: 20 October 2009 / Revised: 3 December 2009 / Accepted: 3 December 2009 / Published: 4 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retroviral Enzymes)
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Abstract

Retroviruses are RNA viruses that replicate through a DNA intermediate, in a process catalyzed by the viral reverse transcriptase (RT). Although cellular polymerases and host factors contribute to retroviral mutagenesis, the RT errors play a major role in retroviral mutation. RT mutations that affect the accuracy of the viral polymerase have been identified by in vitro analysis of the fidelity of DNA synthesis, by using enzymological (gel-based) and genetic assays (e.g., M13mp2 lacZ forward mutation assays). For several amino acid substitutions, these observations have been confirmed in cell culture using viral vectors. This review provides an update on studies leading to the identification of the major components of the fidelity center in retroviral RTs.
Keywords: reverse transcriptase; fidelity; retroviruses; HIV; DNA polymerase; mutation reverse transcriptase; fidelity; retroviruses; HIV; DNA polymerase; mutation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Menéndez-Arias, L. Mutation Rates and Intrinsic Fidelity of Retroviral Reverse Transcriptases. Viruses 2009, 1, 1137-1165.

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