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Forests, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2012), Pages 1-154

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Latent Demand and Time Contextual Constraints to Outdoor Recreation in Sweden
Forests 2012, 3(1), 1-21; doi:10.3390/f3010001
Received: 1 September 2011 / Revised: 1 December 2011 / Accepted: 19 December 2011 / Published: 23 December 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study analyzes the latent demand to outdoor recreation participation and identifies what factors are constraining people from realizing this demand. In Sweden, recreation in the outdoors is seen as a public right as articulated in public policy and much of the [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the latent demand to outdoor recreation participation and identifies what factors are constraining people from realizing this demand. In Sweden, recreation in the outdoors is seen as a public right as articulated in public policy and much of the outdoor recreation centre around forested landscapes—over 60 percent of the land area is classified as forest. Using data from a nationwide survey of 43 recreation activities, the study takes a time-contextual approach to reveal variations in recreation constraints across weekdays, weekends and holidays. Results show that almost half the population has a latent demand to increase their participation in outdoor recreation. Three categories of time contextual constraints are identified and several of the constraints studied show variations across outdoor activities and socio-economic factors. Practical implications for the promotion of outdoor recreation participation by public agencies, recreation managers and tourism businesses are discussed based on the study findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expanding Forests’ Benefits: Forest-based Recreation and Tourism)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Mechanical Site Preparation on Growth of Oaks Planted on Former Agricultural Fields
Forests 2012, 3(1), 22-32; doi:10.3390/f3010022
Received: 16 November 2011 / Revised: 13 December 2011 / Accepted: 23 December 2011 / Published: 28 December 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate problematic soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, any seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor growth and survival. While mechanical site preparation methods currently employed in hardwood [...] Read more.
Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate problematic soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, any seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor growth and survival. While mechanical site preparation methods currently employed in hardwood afforestation are proven, there is a substantial void in research comparing subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing treatments. A total of 4,320 bare-root Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley), Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii Buckley), and swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were planted in February 2008 on three Mississippi sites. All sites were of comparable soils and received above average precipitation throughout the three-year duration of the study. Four site preparation treatments were replicated at each site, with 480 seedlings planted in each of nine replications, and a total of 1,440 seedlings per species planted across all sites. Mechanical treatments were installed using 3.1 m row centers, with treatments as follows: control, subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing. Treatment effects on seedling height, groundline diameter (GLD), and survival were analyzed. Seedlings exhibited greater height in bedded and combination plowed areas (79.7 cm to 102.7 cm and 82.6 cm to 100.1 cm, respectively) compared to subsoiled or control areas (70.4 cm to 84.6 cm and 71.4 cm to 86.9 cm, respectively). Greater GLD was observed in bedded and combination plowed areas (11.9 mm to 18.4 mm and 12.2 mm to 18.3 mm, respectively) compared to subsoiled or control areas (10.2 mm to 14.6 mm and 10.5 mm to 15.6 mm, respectively). Survival was high for this study (94.%), and no differences were detected among treatments. Full article
Open AccessArticle Forest Carbon Leakage Quantification Methods and Their Suitability for Assessing Leakage in REDD
Forests 2012, 3(1), 33-58; doi:10.3390/f3010033
Received: 31 October 2011 / Revised: 15 December 2011 / Accepted: 6 January 2012 / Published: 16 January 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper assesses quantification methods for carbon leakage from forestry activities for their suitability in leakage accounting in a future Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) mechanism. To that end, we first conducted a literature review to identify specific pre-requisites [...] Read more.
This paper assesses quantification methods for carbon leakage from forestry activities for their suitability in leakage accounting in a future Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) mechanism. To that end, we first conducted a literature review to identify specific pre-requisites for leakage assessment in REDD. We then analyzed a total of 34 quantification methods for leakage emissions from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS), the Climate Action Reserve (CAR), the CarbonFix Standard (CFS), and from scientific literature sources. We screened these methods for the leakage aspects they address in terms of leakage type, tools used for quantification and the geographical scale covered. Results show that leakage methods can be grouped into nine main methodological approaches, six of which could fulfill the recommended REDD leakage requirements if approaches for primary and secondary leakage are combined. The majority of methods assessed, address either primary or secondary leakage; the former mostly on a local or regional and the latter on national scale. The VCS is found to be the only carbon accounting standard at present to fulfill all leakage quantification requisites in REDD. However, a lack of accounting methods was identified for international leakage, which was addressed by only two methods, both from scientific literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Climate Change Mitigation Through Reduced-Impact Logging and the Hierarchy of Production Forest Management
Forests 2012, 3(1), 59-74; doi:10.3390/f3010059
Received: 21 November 2011 / Revised: 30 December 2011 / Accepted: 10 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The proposed hierarchy of production forest management provides modus operandi for forest concessions to move incrementally towards Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) via Reduced-Impact Logging (RIL) and forest certification. Financial benefits are sourced in the “Additionality Zone”, financing the rise in the hierarchy [...] Read more.
The proposed hierarchy of production forest management provides modus operandi for forest concessions to move incrementally towards Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) via Reduced-Impact Logging (RIL) and forest certification. Financial benefits are sourced in the “Additionality Zone”, financing the rise in the hierarchy and offsetting prohibitive forest and carbon certification costs. RIL carbon registration components consist of developing credible baseline, additionality and leakage arguments around the business-as-usual scenario through the quantification of historical forest inventory and production records, forest infrastructure records and damage to the residual forest. If conventional harvesting is taken as a baseline, research indicates RIL can potentially reduce emissions by approximately 1–7 tCO2e ha−1yr−1. The current market price of USD $7.30 per tCO2e may result in over USD $50 ha−1yr−1 in additional revenue, well above the estimated USD $3–5 ha−1 in carbon transaction costs. Concessions in Sabah Malaysia demonstrate the financial viability of long-term RIL and certification planning. This may act as a basis for future planned forest management activities involving RIL, carbon and forest certification through the hierarchy of production forest management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Climate Change)
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Open AccessCommunication Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Climate Change: An Editorial
Forests 2012, 3(1), 75-82; doi:10.3390/f3010075
Received: 4 January 2012 / Revised: 9 January 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2012 / Published: 30 January 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (45 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate change presents potential risks to forests and challenges for forest managers. Adaptation to climate change involves monitoring and anticipating change and undertaking actions to avoid the negative consequences and take advantage of potential benefits of those changes. Forest managers are accustomed [...] Read more.
Climate change presents potential risks to forests and challenges for forest managers. Adaptation to climate change involves monitoring and anticipating change and undertaking actions to avoid the negative consequences and take advantage of potential benefits of those changes. Forest managers are accustomed to considering the long-term implications of their decisions. However, many are now responding to much shorter term economic or political imperatives. Climate change potentially increases the consequences of many existing challenges associated with environmental, social or economic change. Some current management measures may continue to be suitable in responding to increasing pressures under climate change, while for other situations new measures will be required. This special issue presents papers from Africa, Europe, and North America that provide examples of the type of analysis being implemented to support forest management in a changing climate. The implications in the context of uncertainty in climate projections and ecosystem responses are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Climate Change)
Open AccessArticle Transformation of Cyclaneusma minus with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) to Enable Screening of Fungi for Biocontrol Activity
Forests 2012, 3(1), 83-94; doi:10.3390/f3010083
Received: 23 November 2011 / Revised: 10 January 2012 / Accepted: 19 January 2012 / Published: 1 February 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyclaneusma needle-cast has a major impact on the New Zealand forest industry. The causal agent, Cyclaneusma minus, causes most severe damage to 11–20 year-old trees and currently there are no economically viable procedures for control of the disease in New Zealand. [...] Read more.
Cyclaneusma needle-cast has a major impact on the New Zealand forest industry. The causal agent, Cyclaneusma minus, causes most severe damage to 11–20 year-old trees and currently there are no economically viable procedures for control of the disease in New Zealand. Here we present a method for genetic transformation of C. minus using protoplasts generated by incubation with Glucanex™ enzyme. C. minus was transformed with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expression was stable after successive sub-culturing of the strain in the absence of selective pressure. Expression of the gfp gene allowed us to utilize an in vitro GFP-based screening method to identify strains of Trichoderma with potential for biocontrol of this disease. The strain that showed the most promise as a potential biocontrol candidate exhibited a low level of inhibition by uncharacterized metabolite(s) that C. minus secretes into the medium, and consistently caused a loss of GFP expression from the GFP-labeled C. minus strain. The interaction between C. minus and the biocontrol strain, in the interaction zone where GFP expression was lost, was determined to be fungicidal. The utility of such biocontrol strains is discussed. This study represents the first genetic manipulation of C. minus and will pave the way for further studies of the life cycle and infection biology of this organism. Full article
Open AccessArticle Five Year Field Evaluation of Prosopis alba Clones on pH 9–10 Soils in Argentina Selected for Growth in the Greenhouse at Seawater Salinities (45 dS m−1)
Forests 2012, 3(1), 95-113; doi:10.3390/f3010095
Received: 30 January 2012 / Revised: 5 March 2012 / Accepted: 7 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prosopis alba seedlings, that grew at the 45 dS m−1 salinity level in a previous study of growth and survival of Argentine and Peruvian Prosopis, were propagated by rooting cuttings and established in a seed orchard/long term evaluation trial on [...] Read more.
Prosopis alba seedlings, that grew at the 45 dS m−1 salinity level in a previous study of growth and survival of Argentine and Peruvian Prosopis, were propagated by rooting cuttings and established in a seed orchard/long term evaluation trial on soils with low salinity (EC 5.1–7.5 dS m−1) but high pH (8.9 to 10.2). A pH gradient occurred in the field with values ranging from pH 9.4 in block 1 to pH 10.3 in block 5. After five years growth, almost all of the clones had a mean height greater than 4 m and one clone was more than 5 m. Ten of the 21 tested clones had significantly greater biomass growth than the three seed propagated check varieties. The broad-sense (i.e., clone mean) heritability was estimated to be 0.45 for biomass, 0.53 for diameter and 0.59 for height indicating that strong genetic gains should be possible by selecting and vegetatively propagating the best genotypes. In the block with the highest pH values, two clones that appear to be P. alba × P. ruscifolia hybrids (i.e., P. vinallilo) had the greatest biomass. Correlations between growth during the last two months in the high salinity hydroponic greenhouse selection system and growth in the field were significant (R2 = 0.262) and positive, although the relationship was negative for putative P. vinallilo clones (R2 = 0.938). The several fold increase in biomass of some of the clones over the three check varieties, suggests that the greenhouse screen was successful in identifying superior salt tolerant clones. Apparently whether the greenhouse seedlings had lesser (~1 cm) to greater (~3 cm) height growth was not as important as just having a healthy live apical meristem. The observed salt tolerance of the putative P. vinalillo clones may prove useful as rootstocks for recently described high pod producing P. alba clones. Full article
Open AccessArticle Vertical Stratification and Co-Occurrence Patterns of the Psocoptera Community Associated with Eastern Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, in the Southern Appalachians
Forests 2012, 3(1), 127-136; doi:10.3390/f3010127
Received: 10 February 2012 / Revised: 1 March 2012 / Accepted: 7 March 2012 / Published: 21 March 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Of the more than 300 species of Psocoptera described in North America, 44 species have been documented on eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, in the southern Appalachians. However, the distribution and co-occurrence patterns of these species throughout the tree canopy are [...] Read more.
Of the more than 300 species of Psocoptera described in North America, 44 species have been documented on eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, in the southern Appalachians. However, the distribution and co-occurrence patterns of these species throughout the tree canopy are unknown. This study was initiated to evaluate specimen abundance, species richness and species composition among three designated strata in the canopy of eastern hemlock, assess species for vertical stratification patterns, and determine if co-occurrence patterns of Psocoptera species are random or non-random. During this study, 27 species representing 18 genera and 10 families were evaluated. Psocopteran specimen abundance, species richness and composition differed among the lower, middle, and upper strata. Unique assemblages were identified in each stratum, indicating vertical stratification. The upper stratum of the canopy had five exclusive species, the middle had four exclusive species, and the lower stratum had 14 exclusive species. The co-occurrence pattern of Psocoptera species in the canopy of eastern hemlock was non-random. Full article
Open AccessArticle Splitting the Difference: A Proposal for Benefit Sharing in Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+)
Forests 2012, 3(1), 137-154; doi:10.3390/f3010137
Received: 14 February 2012 / Revised: 15 March 2012 / Accepted: 19 March 2012 / Published: 21 March 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (86 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of REDD+ is to create incentives for the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and for the increase of carbon stocks through the enhancement, conservation and sustainable management of forests in developing countries. As part of the international [...] Read more.
The objective of REDD+ is to create incentives for the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and for the increase of carbon stocks through the enhancement, conservation and sustainable management of forests in developing countries. As part of the international negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), compensation would be estimated in relation to national performance but how these incentives will be channeled within countries has not been specified and there are concerns about how the benefits will be shared among different stakeholders. One central issue is that under the national approach good performance in one region can be offset by underperformance in other regions of the country thus preventing the generation of predictable local incentives. Other issues relate to the need to provide incentives to a wide range of stakeholders and to avoid perverse reactions. To address these and other issues we propose separating the accounting of reduced deforestation, reduced degradation and enhancement of forests. The local attribution of credits would be easier for carbon enhancement, and possibly reduced degradation, than for reduced deforestation, since carbon gains can, in principle, be measured locally in the first two cases, while estimating achievements in reduced deforestation requires a regional approach. This separation in attribution of rewards can help to create adequate incentives for the different stakeholders and overcome some of the problems associated with the design and implementation of national REDD+ programs. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Sector Sampling—Synthesis and Applications
Forests 2012, 3(1), 114-126; doi:10.3390/f3010114
Received: 7 February 2012 / Revised: 11 March 2012 / Accepted: 15 March 2012 / Published: 20 March 2012
PDF Full-text (422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sector sampling is a new and simple approach to sampling objects or borders. This approach would be especially useful for sampling objects in small discrete areas or “polygons” with lots of internal or external edge, but it may be extended to sampling [...] Read more.
Sector sampling is a new and simple approach to sampling objects or borders. This approach would be especially useful for sampling objects in small discrete areas or “polygons” with lots of internal or external edge, but it may be extended to sampling any object regardless of polygon size. Sector plots are wedge-shaped with a fixed sector angle. The probability of object selection is constant and equal to the sector angle in degrees divided by 360°. A unique property of sector sampling is that the point from which the angle originates may be located subjectively when the sector direction is at random. Another advantage over traditional sampling (such as fixed or variable area plots) is that there is no edge effect; that is, there is no altering of selection probabilities of objects close to polygon boundaries. Various approaches are described for deriving polygon means and totals with their associated variances. We review the genesis of sector sampling and develop two new components: sub-sampling using fixed area plots and line sampling using the sector arcs as transects. Sector sampling may be extended to measuring a variety of objects such as trees, shrubs, plants, birds, animal trails and polygon borders. Full article

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