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Materials 2015, 8(7), 3831-3853; doi:10.3390/ma8073831

A Bone Sample Containing a Bone Graft Substitute Analyzed by Correlating Density Information Obtained by X-ray Micro Tomography with Compositional Information Obtained by Raman Microscopy

1
Department of Forest Products Technology and Management, University of Applied Sciences Salzburg, Markt 136a, Kuchl A-5431, Austria
2
Department of Materials Science and Physics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstraße 34, Salzburg A-5020, Austria
3
Department of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Stelzhamerstraße23, Wels A-4600, Austria
4
Centre for Image Analysis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 337, Uppsala 751 05, Sweden
5
Karl Donath Laboratory for Hard Tissue and Biomaterial Research, Department of Oral Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Sensengasse 2a, Vienna A-1090, Austria
6
Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Donaueschingerstraße 13, Vienna A-1200, Austria
7
Department of Prosthetics-, Biomechanic- and Biomaterial Research, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Strubergasse 21, Salzburg A-5020, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Franz E. Weber
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3926 KB, uploaded 25 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

The ability of bone graft substitutes to promote new bone formation has been increasingly used in the medical field to repair skeletal defects or to replace missing bone in a broad range of applications in dentistry and orthopedics. A common way to assess such materials is via micro computed tomography (µ-CT), through the density information content provided by the absorption of X-rays. Information on the chemical composition of a material can be obtained via Raman spectroscopy. By investigating a bone sample from miniature pigs containing the bone graft substitute Bio Oss®, we pursued the target of assessing to what extent the density information gained by µ-CT imaging matches the chemical information content provided by Raman spectroscopic imaging. Raman images and Raman correlation maps of the investigated sample were used in order to generate a Raman based segmented image by means of an agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting segments, showing chemically related areas, were subsequently compared with the µ-CT image by means of a one-way ANOVA. We found out that to a certain extent typical gray-level values (and the related histograms) in the µ-CT image can be reliably related to specific segments within the image resulting from the cluster analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-ray micro computed tomography; Raman spectroscopy; bone; Bio-Oss®; cluster analysis; image segmentation X-ray micro computed tomography; Raman spectroscopy; bone; Bio-Oss®; cluster analysis; image segmentation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Charwat-Pessler, J.; Musso, M.; Petutschnigg, A.; Entacher, K.; Plank, B.; Wernersson, E.; Tangl, S.; Schuller-Götzburg, P. A Bone Sample Containing a Bone Graft Substitute Analyzed by Correlating Density Information Obtained by X-ray Micro Tomography with Compositional Information Obtained by Raman Microscopy. Materials 2015, 8, 3831-3853.

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