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Materials 2015, 8(6), 3685-3700; doi:10.3390/ma8063685

3D Printable Biophotopolymers for in Vivo Bone Regeneration

Department of Cranio-, Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Division of Macromolecular Chemistry, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9, 1060 Vienna, Austria
Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9, 1060 Vienna, Austria
Department of Biomedical Research, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Franz E. Weber
Received: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Bone Substitute Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [952 KB, uploaded 19 June 2015]   |  


The present study investigated two novel biophotopolymer classes that are chemically based on non-toxic poly (vinyl alcohol). These vinylesters and vinylcarbonates were compared to standard acrylates in vitro on MC3T3-E1 cells and in vivo in a small animal model. In vitro, both vinylester and vinylcarbonate monomers showed about tenfold less cytotoxicity when compared to acrylates (IC50: 2.922 mM and 2.392 mM vs. 0.201 mM) and at least threefold higher alkaline phosphatase activity (17.038 and 18.836 vs. 5.795, measured at [10 mM]). In vivo, polymerized 3D cellular structures were implanted into the distal femoral condyle of 16 New Zealand White Rabbits and were observed for periods from 4 to 12 weeks. New bone formation and bone to implant contact was evaluated by histomorphometry at end of observation. Vinylesters showed similar rates of new bone formation but significantly less (p = 0.002) bone to implant contact, when compared to acrylates. In contrast, the implantation of vinylcarbonate based biophotopolymers led to significantly higher rates of newly formed bone (p < 0.001) and bone to implant contact (p < 0.001). Additionally, distinct signs of polymer degradation could be observed in vinylesters and vinylcarbonates by histology. We conclude, that vinylesters and vinylcarbonates are promising new biophotopolymers, that outmatch available poly(lactic acid) and (meth)acrylate based materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: photopolymers; additive manufacturing technology; bone regeneration; in vivo photopolymers; additive manufacturing technology; bone regeneration; in vivo

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Russmueller, G.; Liska, R.; Stampfl, J.; Heller, C.; Mautner, A.; Macfelda, K.; Kapeller, B.; Lieber, R.; Haider, A.; Mika, K.; Schopper, C.; Perisanidis, C.; Seemann, R.; Moser, D. 3D Printable Biophotopolymers for in Vivo Bone Regeneration. Materials 2015, 8, 3685-3700.

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