Next Article in Journal
Highly Dispersed Nickel-Containing Mesoporous Silica with Superior Stability in Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane: The Effect of Anchoring
Next Article in Special Issue
Lanthanum Gadolinium Oxide: A New Electronic Device Material for CMOS Logic and Memory Devices
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Molecular Conformations and Microstructure on the Optoelectronic Properties of Conjugated Polymers
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Review on Resistive Switching in High-k Dielectrics: A Nanoscale Point of View Using Conductive Atomic Force Microscope
Due to scheduled maintaince work on one of the switches in our server center, our websites and may experience short service dirsuptions of up to 5 minutes on 30 January 2015 00:00 PM EST time.
Materials 2014, 7(3), 2301-2339; doi:10.3390/ma7032301

Germanium Based Field-Effect Transistors: Challenges and Opportunities

*  and
Received: 18 January 2014 / Revised: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 7 March 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-k Materials and Devices 2014)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1482 KB, uploaded 19 March 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: The performance of strained silicon (Si) as the channel material for today’s metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors may be reaching a plateau. New channel materials with high carrier mobility are being investigated as alternatives and have the potential to unlock an era of ultra-low-power and high-speed microelectronic devices. Chief among these new materials is germanium (Ge). This work reviews the two major remaining challenges that Ge based devices must overcome if they are to replace Si as the channel material, namely, heterogeneous integration of Ge on Si substrates, and developing a suitable gate stack. Next, Ge is compared to compound III-V materials in terms of p-channel device performance to review how it became the first choice for PMOS devices. Different Ge device architectures, including surface channel and quantum well configurations, are reviewed. Finally, state-of-the-art Ge device results and future prospects are also discussed.
Keywords: germanium; heterogeneous integration; passivation; buffer; high mobility; gate stack; quantum well germanium; heterogeneous integration; passivation; buffer; high mobility; gate stack; quantum well
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |

MDPI and ACS Style

Goley, P.S.; Hudait, M.K. Germanium Based Field-Effect Transistors: Challenges and Opportunities. Materials 2014, 7, 2301-2339.

AMA Style

Goley PS, Hudait MK. Germanium Based Field-Effect Transistors: Challenges and Opportunities. Materials. 2014; 7(3):2301-2339.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goley, Patrick S.; Hudait, Mantu K. 2014. "Germanium Based Field-Effect Transistors: Challenges and Opportunities." Materials 7, no. 3: 2301-2339.

Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert