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Materials 2014, 7(3), 2301-2339; doi:10.3390/ma7032301
Review

Germanium Based Field-Effect Transistors: Challenges and Opportunities

*  and
Received: 18 January 2014; in revised form: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 7 March 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-k Materials and Devices 2014)
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Abstract: The performance of strained silicon (Si) as the channel material for today’s metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors may be reaching a plateau. New channel materials with high carrier mobility are being investigated as alternatives and have the potential to unlock an era of ultra-low-power and high-speed microelectronic devices. Chief among these new materials is germanium (Ge). This work reviews the two major remaining challenges that Ge based devices must overcome if they are to replace Si as the channel material, namely, heterogeneous integration of Ge on Si substrates, and developing a suitable gate stack. Next, Ge is compared to compound III-V materials in terms of p-channel device performance to review how it became the first choice for PMOS devices. Different Ge device architectures, including surface channel and quantum well configurations, are reviewed. Finally, state-of-the-art Ge device results and future prospects are also discussed.
Keywords: germanium; heterogeneous integration; passivation; buffer; high mobility; gate stack; quantum well germanium; heterogeneous integration; passivation; buffer; high mobility; gate stack; quantum well
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Goley, P.S.; Hudait, M.K. Germanium Based Field-Effect Transistors: Challenges and Opportunities. Materials 2014, 7, 2301-2339.

AMA Style

Goley PS, Hudait MK. Germanium Based Field-Effect Transistors: Challenges and Opportunities. Materials. 2014; 7(3):2301-2339.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goley, Patrick S.; Hudait, Mantu K. 2014. "Germanium Based Field-Effect Transistors: Challenges and Opportunities." Materials 7, no. 3: 2301-2339.


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